Degree course: 
Corso di First cycle degree in Nursing
Academic year when starting the degree: 
Academic year in which the course will be held: 
Course type: 
Basic compulsory subjects
Seat of the course: 
Como - Università degli Studi dell'Insubria
Second semester
Ore minime di frequenza: 
Standard lectures hours: 
Detail of lecture’s hours: 
Lesson (45 hours)

To be admitted to the final exam of Human Physiology it is necessary to possess a positive evaluation of the exam of "Human Anatomy and Hystology"

Final Examination: 

The final evaluation consists in a multiple choice exam, performed through a digital support (PC), organized in 40 questions on the entire course programs. The exam is passed if the student attains a score greater than 18/30.

Voto Finale

The aim of the course of Human Physiology is to provide the students with all necessary information to understand, from the quantitative and biophysical standpoint, the mechanisms of functioning of cells, tissues, and organs under normal conditions and their control by the central and autonomous nervous systems.

- Body compartments
- Biophysics of blood ad body fluids
- Cell electrophysiology
- Somatic sensations
- Medullar functions
- Cerebral cortex functions
- Control of motor function and body posture
- Basal ganglia and cerebellum
- Hypotalamus
- Limbic system
- Autonomic Nervous System
- Muscle and locomotion
- Heart and circulatory system
- Respiratory system
- Renal system
- Acid-base equilibrium
- Metabolism
- Thermoregulation
- Digestive system
- Endocrine system

Blood and body fluids. Subdivisions of body compartments. Distribution, ionic and solute content of body compartments. Functions of blood. Physical properties. Osmotic and oncotic pressure. Erythrocytes sedimentation. Hematocrit. Blood cells. Hemometry. Coagulation ad hemostasis.
Cell electrophysiology. Resting cell membrane potential. Time and space constant. Excitation threshold, ionic currents Ionic channels. Action potential and its propagation along myelinated and non-myelinated nervous fibers. Refractory period. Conduction speed. Synaptic function. Synaptic properties and neurotransmitters. Unidirectional conduction, central delay, excitation and inhibition. Ca++ role in neurotransmitters release. Excitatory (EPSP) and inhibitory (IPSP) postsynaptic potential. Neuromuscular junction. Neuronal codification. Integration of postsynaptic signals:
Nervous system. Sensory system. Generator and receptor membrane potential. Receptor adaptation. Mono and pluri-synaptic reflexes. Interneurons and inhibitory circuits. Somatic sensations. Tactile and position senses. Neuromuscular spindles and Golgi tendon organs;  and  circuits. Sensory pathways for transmitting somatic signals to central nervous system. Sensory cortex Thermal sensation. Thermal receptors. Pain. Types of pain receptors. Pathways for transmitting thermal and pain signals to central nervous system. Referred and visceral pain. Peripheral and central mechanisms of endogenous control of pain. Vestibular sensation and maintenance of equilibrium. Vestibular apparatus. Function of utricle and saccule in static equilibrium. Transmission of sound through the outer and medium ear. Inner ear: transmission of sound waves in the cochlea, function of the organ of Corti. Central auditory mechanisms. Vision. The retina as a receptor. Photochemistry of vision. Color vision. Neural function of the retina. Visual pathways. Organizations and functions of the visual cortex. The chemical senses – Taste and Smell. Receptors. Transmission to taste and smell signals to the central nervous system. Motor control. The neuromotor unit. Organization of spinal cord for motor function. Flexor and withdrawal reflexes, crossed extended reflex. Reciprocal inhibition and reciprocal innervation. Spinal shock. Cortical and brainstem control of motor function. Primary motor cortex. Premotor area. Role of reticular and vestibular nuclei. Control of posture. Cerebellum. Afferent and efferent pathways to the cerebellum. Basal ganglia. Motor functions. Specific neurotransmitters. Cerebral cortex. EEG. Functions of specific cortical areas. Association areas. Language. Different function of the two hemispheres. Short- term, intermediate–term and long-term memory. Limbic system and Hypothalamus. Activating- de-activating systems of the brain. Vegetative and endocrine control function of the hypothalamus. Functions of the limbic system. Autonomic nervous system. General organization and characteristics of sympathetic and parasympathetic function. Autonomic reflexes. Control of the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems in distinct organs.
Muscle and locomotion. Function of skeletal muscle. Elastic and contractile components. Isometric, isotonic and iso-velocity contraction. Single twitch and tetanization. Force-length diagram. Force-velocity diagram. Dynamic force-velocity diagram.
Heart. Cardiac pace-maker. Specialized excitatory ad conductive system of the heart. Resting membrane potential and action potential in specialized system and in normal myocytes. Electrocardiogram. Control of cardiac function. Receptors, afferent pathways, cardiovascular regulatory centers, efferent pathways. Cardiac mechanics. Valves function. Ventricular pressure and volume during cardiac cycle. Cardiac stroke and cardiac output. Work output, cardiac efficiency.
Circulatory system. Distribution of blood volume. Velocity, cross section and pressure in the circulatory districts. Static Mechanical features of blood vessels. L

AA.VV. FONDAMENTI di Fisiologia Umana, ed. Edi Ermes
AA.VV. Fisiologia dell'Uomo, ed. Edi-Ermes
AA.VV. FISIOLOGIA, a cura di Scotto, Mondola - Poletto Editore

For the course, the students will have front lessons with slides. During classroom discussions, students are encouraged to interact with teachers with questions and curiosities. During lectures, the teachers will also present examples and daily facts that can make sense of the application/importance of the subjects of the lessons.
Students are required to attend the lessons as set out in the teaching regulations of the course and sign the attendance sheet to be able to take the exam.

Dr. Solari receives by appointment. Please contact the teacher by email at