HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY 1
- Assessment methods
- Learning objectives
- Full programme
- Teaching methods
Although not mandatory, solid foundations of Human Anatomy and Biochemistry are advisable in order to approach the study of the topics of the course of Physiology 1.
The final exam will consist of a written test that will be made at the end of the course and will include all arguments of both courses.
At the end of the course the student will be in possession of the knowledge needed to understand the workings of nerve cells, of nerve circuits to which they belong, of their interaction and the various areas or districts that they form. Through such knowledge, the student will be able to develop a critical reasoning on the functioning of individual systems and on how the various parts of the nervous system interact with each other to ensure the correct control of the functional cardiovascular,respiratory and homeostatic parameters, as well as the sensory afferent information are interpreted and processed to obtain motor efferent responses consistent with the stimuli to which the organism is exposed.
The course will deal with the concepts related to the functioning of nerve cells, and subsequently the functioning of sensory systems, afferent pathways, efferent motor pathways, movement control centers and specific functions of the various brain areas
Cellular neurophysiology Resting membrane potential. Time constant and space of nerve fibers. Threshold, under- and supra-liminal current. Law of all or nothing. Action potential and its propagation. Synaptic function. Properties of synapses. Chemical mediators. Unidirectional conduction: delay, excitation or inhibition. Coupling between action potential and mediator release: role of Ca2 +. Post-synaptic receptors. Excitatory post-synaptic potential (EPSP) and inhibitory (IPSP). Neuromuscular junction: the motive plate. Neuronal coding. Integration of post-synaptic signals: temporal summation, convergence and spatial summation. Transformation of post-synaptic effects into repetitive discharges of neurons. Sensory systems. General characteristics of sensory receptors: generator potential and receptor potential. Monosynaptic and plurisynaptic reflexes. General characteristics of the reflexes: latent time, spatial and temporal summation, subliminal fringe, occlusion, facilitation. Tactile and kinesthetic sensitivity. Tactile and articular receptors. Neuromuscular spindles: afferent and efferent innervation. Range circuit. Golgi tendon-like organs. Central street of discriminated and indiscriminate tactile and kinesthetic sensitivity. Thermal sensitivity and pain. Central transmission of pain. Vestibular apparatus. Semicircular receptors and macular receptors. Acoustic, visual, olfactory and gustatory sensitivity. Motor control. The neuromotor unit. Neuromuscular spindles and spinal reflexes. Posture maintenance. Spinal and vestibular component. Motor coordination. Afferent, efferent and cortical circuits of the cerebellum. Cerebellum. Mirror neurons. Core units Voluntary movement. Motor cortical areas. Direct and indirect cortico-spinal motor pathways. Motor homunculus. Cerebral cortex. Functional specialization of the various cortical areas: hemispheric dominance. Role of the corpus callosum. Centers of language, motor aphasia and sensory aphasia. Medial temporal lobe and the hippocampus. Different types of memory. Hypothalamus. Limbic system. Vegetative nervous system. Chemical mediators, action on effector organs. Pain sensitivity. Types of pain, polymodal receptors and nociceptors. Central transmission of pain. Gate theory, viscero-somatic convergences on transmission neurons (referred pain). Neo-spino-thalamic and paleo-spino-thalamic section. Central periaqueductal analgesic system and raphe nuclei. Endogenous opioids.
AA.VV. Human and physiology, Edi Ermes
Kandel et al. Principles of neuroscience Ed. CEA