Degree course: 
Academic year when starting the degree: 
Academic year in which the course will be held: 
Standard lectures hours: 

Basic knowledge of General Biology is necessary for successful learning in the course. There are no constraints on propedeuticity.

It is necessary have passed the exam in the Biology applied to the animal cell Module to take the exam in the Zoology Module

Final Examination: 

Biology applied to the animal cell

The exam consists of a final written exam. The student will be asked some questions concerning the teaching program and concerning both general concepts and specific problems or techniques. The objective of the final exam is to verify the level of achievement of the educational objectives, evaluating in the first place the possession of the basic cognitive elements and therefore the student's ability to use them autonomously for the resolution of real problems. The final evaluation will be expressed in thirtieths.

The exam consists of a practical test and a final oral exam. For the first part of the exam (practical test) some animal organisms will be shown with the purpose of evaluating morpho-functional characteristics and taxonomic recognition, there will also be questions (including at least one of them) about the program teaching and dealing with both general and problematic issues or specific techniques. The goal of the final exam is to check the level of achievement of the training objectives, firstly assessing the possession of the basic knowledge elements and therefore the student's ability to use them autonomously to solve real problems. The final evaluation, expressed along a scale 0-30, will take into account learning (30%), the ability to apply theoretical concepts to real cases (30%), judgment autonomy (30%) and communication skills (10 %).

Voto Finale

The general objective of the course in animal biology is to provide basic knowledge on the functioning of animal living organisms starting from cellular or sub-cellular structures, up to the level of individuals, populations or species. The basic indications useful for the systematic recognition of the main animal groups with an evolutionary analysis will be contextually provided. In the individual modules the following educational objectives will also be pursued:
the Biology applied to the animal cell module provides the basic notions for the understanding of animal physiology, starting from the study of the morphology and physiology of the cell up to the essential functions of animal organisms.
The course deals with the study of the cell as a functional unit of living beings, providing a detailed view of subcellular structures and their role in metabolism and interactions between cells.
The main cellular functions will be investigated, such as: flow of genetic information; major metabolic cycles; proliferation, differentiation and cell death; protein synthesis, sorting and degradation; intercellular cross-talk; motility; fertilization.
The multicellular organization, the tissues and the main physiological functions of animal organisms will also be studied.
The main methods of experimental investigation in the biological field, microscopy techniques, analysis of cellular functions and outline of protein characterization and purification will be addressed.
Finally, some topics of environmental interest that involve knowledge of animal physiology will be investigated.

The module of zoology will contribute to providing and completing the information needed to gain proper knowledge of zoology, including issues related to evolution, species and species interaction, and species and habitats. The general objectives of the course are: I) to acquire the critical evaluation tools to obtain an adequate knowledge of the evolutionary and functional characteristics of the main zoological groups II) to acquire the critical evaluation tools to obtain an adequate knowledge of the evolutionary and functional problems of the main Phyla III) synergistically apply zoological knowledge with other disciplines IV) enhance their dissemination skills by exploiting the acquired knowledge. The emphasis will be on the evolution of organs and apparatus, on functional evolution, reproductive strategies and sexuality. The phylogeny and the main criteria for the classification of animal groups will be treated. The organization, reproduction and sexuality in the Protozoi will also be presented. The main features of Metazoi will be described: the early stages of embryonic development, the appearance of body cavities, and the origin of Protostomi and Deuterostomi. Description of Phyla animals will take place with particular regard to organization, adaptation and phylogenetic relationships. The zoological course therefore aims to provide an overview of animal diversity through animal phylogeny.


Frontal lessons with exercises and seminars. The purpose of the exercises is to develop analytical and understanding skills with regard to specific skills acquisition, assessing the resolution of specific zoological problems, particularly on structure and function and on systematic features. Seminars are specifically designed to investigate individual issues considered of primary interest in the context of understanding the phenomena of animal biology.