Degree course: 
Corso di First cycle degree in CHEMICAL AND INDUSTRIAL CHEMISTRY
Academic year when starting the degree: 
Academic year in which the course will be held: 
Course type: 
Basic compulsory subjects
Second semester
Standard lectures hours: 
Detail of lecture’s hours: 
Lesson (48 hours), Exercise (32 hours)

For the understanding of the topics covered in the course the fundamentals of differential calculus in one and two variables and integral calculus in a variable are necessary.

Final Examination: 

The exam is divided into two parts. The first part consists of a questionnaire of multiple choice questions (4 possible choices) that cover all the topics of the course. The estimated time is 45 minutes. Overcoming the first part is the necessary condition to gain access to the second part, usually on the same day, which consists in the complete resolution of 4 exercises, similar to those already presented during lessons and exercises, in a time of 2 hours. The final grade proposed to the student is a weighted average of the marks of the two tests. If the proposed grade is equal to or higher than 25, the student can request to carry out an oral integration and the final grade will also take into account the oral interview, especially as regards the learning deficiencies highlighted by the previous tests.

Voto Finale

The aim of the course is to provide an introduction to classical thermodynamics of equilibrium, starting from the definitions of thermodynamic quantities such as volume, pressure and temperature applied to the laws of gases, reaching the definition of thermodynamic chemical equilibrium.
In particular, the student will be able to:
1) Know the properties of the basic quantities (pressure, volume, temperature, heat, work, internal energy, entropy) on which the thermodynamics and the main derived quantities are based (enthalpy and Gibbs free energy)
2) Know the 4 principles of thermodynamics, also through a discussion of the historical experiments that led to the formulation of those principles.
3) Apply the first principle of thermodynamics and the properties of enthalpy to the calculation of thermochemical processes.
4) Apply the second law of thermodynamics and the properties of Gibbs free energy to the calculation of chemical and phase equilibria.

Principles and definitions. Macroscopic and Microscopic points of view. Abstract definition of temperature and thermal equilibrium. Zero principle of thermodynamics. Equation of state. Ideal gases. Kinetic theory of gases. Real gases. First law of thermodynamics. Heat, work, internal energy. Thermal capacity. enthalpy; Second law of thermodynamics. Clausius inequality. Third law of thermodynamics. Gibbs energy. Gibbs-Helmholtz equation. Chemical potential. Phase diagrams. Partial molar magnitudes. Ideal solutions. Colligative properties. Chemical equilibrium. Van't Hoff equation.

Lectures will address the following topics:
Principles and definitions. Macroscopic and Microscopic points of view. Abstract definition of temperature and thermal equilibrium. Zero principle of thermodynamics. Equation of experimental state. The ideal gases; pVT diagrams. Kinetic theory of gases. Real gases: molecular interactions, compression factor; constant criticism; van der Waals equation; principle of the corresponding states. First law of thermodynamics: heat, work, internal energy; energy conservation; thermal capacity at constant volume and constant pressure; enthalpy; Second law of thermodynamics: spontaneous processes, statistical definition and thermodynamics of entropy; Clausius inequality; Entropy of an ideal gas. Third law of thermodynamics; efficiency of thermal processes: maximum work, Carnot cycle, thermodynamic temperature scale; Gibbs energy; standard molar Gibbs functions; fundamental equation of thermodynamics; properties of the Gibbs function: Gibbs-Helmholtz equation; chemical potential of a perfect gas; real gases and transience; Phase diagrams; equation of Clapeyron; solid-liquid, liquid-vapor and solid-vapor balance; Clausius-Clapeyron equation; phase transitions. Partial molar magnitudes; Gibbs-Duhem equation; Gibbs function, mixing entropy; ideal solutions: Raoult's law, Henry's law; liquid mixtures; colligative properties. Diagrams of vapor pressure-composition and temperature-composition; distillation, azeotropes. Chemical equilibrium: Gibbs reaction function; reaction balance; balance composition; equilibrium constant, Le Chatelier principle; van't Hoff equation.

In addition to the slides provided by the lecturer in class, and downloadable from the professor's University website, the text is recommended:
P. W. Atkins, "Physical Chemistry", Oxford University Press, Oxford


The 6 CFU course corresponds to 48 hours of lectures. All the lectures are supported by slides prepared by the teacher and distributed in advance to the students so that they can integrate the material with their notes taken in class, and downloadable from the university website.
Exercises are also planned to show students the practical application of the principles learned during the lectures, with the complete performance of numerical exercises.

The teacher receives an appointment by e-mail upon request