GENERAL AND ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

Degree course: 
Corso di First cycle degree in ENVIRONMENTAL AND NATURAL SCIENCES
Academyc year when starting the degree: 
2019/2020
Year: 
1
Academyc year when helding the course: 
2019/2020
Language: 
Italian
Credits: 
12
Standard lectures hours: 
96
Requirements: 

General Chemistry module:
Fundamentals of mathematics and physics are required, as provided during high school years.
Knowledge of stoichiometry, acid and base concept and electronegativity are required.

Organic Chemistry module:
Knowledge of stoichiometry, acid and base concept and electronegativity are required.

Final Examination: 
Orale

The final mark is the average of the two partial evaluations of General Chemistry Module and Organic Chemistry Module of the course.

General Chemistry Module
The examination consists of a written test based on both open questions related to theory topics and the resolution of stoichiometry problems. Each question will be associated to specific marks.
The questions related to the topics of theory are aimed at ascertaining the level of knowledge and the ability to understand the topics, as well as the ability to use the appropriate scientific terminology and logical organization of the discussion.
The resolution of stoichiometry problems is aimed at verifying the ability to correctly apply theoretical knowledge to numerical chemical problems and to verify the logical-deductive capabilities acquired.
The exam is considered passed with a grade ≥ 18/30.

Organic Chemistry Module
The examination consists on a written test based on open questions aimed at ascertaining the knowledge of all the topics. The final mark is the average of the two partial evaluations of Parts A and B of the course.

Assessment: 
Voto Finale

General Chemistry module:
The course aims to provide the basis for the comprehension of the macroscopic properties of matter, starting from structure and chemical-physical properties of atoms and molecules. It will also provide the scientific language and methodology relatively to chemical phenomena. The student will acquire the criteria to understand the tendence of an element to react, the way in which this happens with respect to the energy exchanges and to the kinetics, and the behavior of chemical systems in aqueous solution. The exercises will provide the tools for a quantitative treatment of chemical reactions and phenomena.

Organic Chemistry module:
The students will identify basic functional groups of the organic chemistry and will be able to assign the exact IUPAC nomenclature. Moreover, the students will be capable to predict the reactivity of functional groups on the base of bond polarization, of Electrophile and Nucleophile concepts. Simple mechanisms of reactions based on acid/base, resonance and catalysis concepts will be given to facilitate the comprehension of the reactivity.

Atoms, molecules and ions (8 hours)
Elemental substances, mixtures and compounds. Dalton's atomic theory, laws of chemical combinations. Mendeleev's periodic table. Atoms, chemical elements and isotopes. The modern periodic table. Molecules, compounds and molecular formulas. Molecular mass, formula weight. Avogadro number and concept of mole. Nomenclature. Stoichiometry and mass balance in chemical reactions.
Constitution and properties of matter (12 hours)
Atomic structure and outline of quantum mechanics: photoelectric effect, De Broglie relationship, Heisenberg uncertainty principle, introduction to the Schrödinger equation. Quantum numbers and atomic orbitals. Electronic structure and properties of atoms: Pauli's principle, Hund's rule and "aufbau prinzip". Periodic properties of the elements. Ionic, covalent and metallic bond. Symbols and structure by Lewis. Rule of the octet. Resonance. Molecular geometry according to VSEPR. Valence bond theory. Hybridization and steric number. Pauling electronegativity and molecule polarity. Interactions between molecules. Hydrogen bond. Weak intermolecular forces.
Physical State of Matter (5 hours)
Properties of gases. Ideal gas laws. Equation of state of ideal gases. Gas mixtures and partial pressures. Non ideal gases. Properties of liquids. State transition and phase equilibria. Vapor pressure. Surface tension. Viscosity. Qualitative description of water and carbon dioxide state diagrams. Dissolution process and types of solvents most commonly used. Principles of solubility. Raoult's and Henry’s law.
Chemical transformations in aqueous solution (8 hours)
Definitions of acids and bases according to Arrhenius, Bronsted-Lowry, Lewis. Strong and weak electrolytes. Ionic product of water, pH, pOH, pKw. Strength of acids and bases. Degree of ionization. Polyprotic acids. Common ion effect. Reactions between acids and bases. pH calculation. Buffer solutions.
Control of chemical reactions (9 hours)
First law of thermodynamics. General concepts of thermochemistry and energy in chemical reactions. Enthalpy function and Hess law function. Enthalpy of formation, reaction and combustion. Second and third principle of thermodynamics: entropy state function and Gibbs free energy state function. Spontaneity of a chemical reaction. Thermodynamic description of the phase transition.
Chemical Kinetics. Speed of a chemical reaction. Reaction mechanism. Activation energy. Catalysis.
Chemical equilibrium. Law of mass action. Equilibrium constant. Principle of Le Châtelier's mobile equilibrium.
Electrochemistry (7 hours)
Redox reactions. Electrochemical cells. Standard reduction potentials. Free energy and E.M.F. Nernst equation. EMF and equilibrium constant.
Structure of organic molecules: single, double and triple bonds. Carbon, nitrogen and oxygen(sp3, sp2, sp) hybridization. Bond length and bond energy. Electronegativity and bond polarization. Polarization effect on the reactivity. Electrophiles and nucleophiles.
Functional groups: structure and IUPAC nomenclature.
Resonance and aromaticity.
Nomenclature of polyfunctionalized molecules: priority scale of functional groups.
Stereochimistry.
Reactivity of functional groups.
ALKANES.
ALKENES.
ALKINES.
AROMATIC REACTIVITY.
ALKYL HALIDES.
ALCOHOLS.
CARBONYL COMPOUNDS.
CARBOXYLIC ACIDS AND THEIR DERIVATIVES (Acyl halides, Esters, Amides, Anhydrides).

Atoms, molecules and ions (8 hours)
Elemental substances, mixtures and compounds. Dalton's atomic theory, laws of chemical combinations. Mendeleev's periodic table. Atoms, chemical elements and isotopes. The modern periodic table. Molecules, compounds and molecular formulas. Molecular mass, formula weight. Avogadro number and concept of mole. Nomenclature. Stoichiometry and mass balance in chemical reactions.
Constitution and properties of matter (12 hours)
Atomic structure and outline of quantum mechanics: photoelectric effect, De Broglie relationship, Heisenberg uncertainty principle, introduction to the Schrödinger equation. Quantum numbers and atomic orbitals. Electronic structure and properties of atoms: Pauli's principle, Hund's rule and "aufbau prinzip". Periodic properties of the elements. Ionic, covalent and metallic bond. Symbols and structure by Lewis. Rule of the octet. Resonance. Molecular geometry according to VSEPR. Valence bond theory. Hybridization and steric number. Pauling electronegativity and molecule polarity. Interactions between molecules. Hydrogen bond. Weak intermolecular forces.
Physical State of Matter (5 hours)
Properties of gases. Ideal gas laws. Equation of state of ideal gases. Gas mixtures and partial pressures. Non ideal gases. Properties of liquids. State transition and phase equilibria. Vapor pressure. Surface tension. Viscosity. Qualitative description of water and carbon dioxide state diagrams. Dissolution process and types of solvents most commonly used. Principles of solubility. Raoult's and Henry’s law.
Chemical transformations in aqueous solution (8 hours)
Definitions of acids and bases according to Arrhenius, Bronsted-Lowry, Lewis. Strong and weak electrolytes. Ionic product of water, pH, pOH, pKw. Strength of acids and bases. Degree of ionization. Polyprotic acids. Common ion effect. Reactions between acids and bases. pH calculation. Buffer solutions.
Control of chemical reactions (9 hours)
First law of thermodynamics. General concepts of thermochemistry and energy in chemical reactions. Enthalpy function and Hess law function. Enthalpy of formation, reaction and combustion. Second and third principle of thermodynamics: entropy state function and Gibbs free energy state function. Spontaneity of a chemical reaction. Thermodynamic description of the phase transition.
Chemical Kinetics. Speed of a chemical reaction. Reaction mechanism. Activation energy. Catalysis.
Chemical equilibrium. Law of mass action. Equilibrium constant. Principle of Le Châtelier's mobile equilibrium.
Electrochemistry (7 hours)
Redox reactions. Electrochemical cells. Standard reduction potentials. Free energy and E.M.F. Nernst equation. EMF and equilibrium constant.
Structure of organic molecules: single, double and triple bonds. Carbon, nitrogen and oxygen(sp3, sp2, sp) hybridization. Bond length and bond energy. Electronegativity and bond polarization. Polarization effect on the reactivity. Electrophiles and nucleophiles.
Functional groups: structure and IUPAC nomenclature.
Resonance and aromaticity.
Nomenclature of polyfunctionalized molecules: priority scale of functional groups.
Stereochimistry.
Reactivity of functional groups.
ALKANES.
ALKENES.
ALKINES.
AROMATIC REACTIVITY.
ALKYL HALIDES.
ALCOHOLS.
CARBONYL COMPOUNDS.
CARBOXYLIC ACIDS AND THEIR DERIVATIVES (Acyl halides, Esters, Amides, Anhydrides).

Tro, “Chimica. Un approccio molecolare” Ed. EdiSES.
FONDAMENTI DI CHIMICA ORGANICA, J.C. Smith - McGraw-Hill Education

Convenzionale

The teaching activities are supplied by lectures (48 hours), also including exercises carried out in classroom. PPT slides will be used in classroom.