Degree course: 
Corso di Second cycle degree in ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES
Academyc year when starting the degree: 
Academyc year when helding the course: 
First Semester
Standard lectures hours: 

Knowledge in the fields of Environmental and Occupational Hygiene, General Biology, Physics, Inorganic and Organic Chemistry, Environmental Chemistry are recommended. Knowledge of both spoken and written English is very useful.

Module B "Elements of environmental law". Basic legal knowledge is useful. A specific lesson will be dedicated to the introduction to fundamental legal concepts.

Final Examination: 

The final exam consists in an oral or written exam. Questions will be based on the syllabus and the final score will be based on comprehension, capacity to apply theoretical concepts to real cases, autonomy of judgement, communication skills - correct terminology and learning abilities.

Module B "Elements of environmental law". Written or oral final exam. Two partial tests will be organized (optional).

Voto Finale

Study of man-environment interactions, in terms of effects of human activities and anthropogenic pressures on environmental systems and also in terms of potential effects of the contamination of life and work environments on human health (toxicological risk). Particular emphasis will be given to effects and arising from exposure to contaminants (xenobiotics, endocrine disruptors, atmospheric particulate), to their mechanisms of action, to the environmental pressure on biological systems in vivo and in vitro (DNA and protein damage, cell damage, reproductive abnormalities , developmental alterations, teratogenesis and other biomarkers). The genetic, epigenetic and molecular mechanisms that regulate cell cycle and metabolic functions.
At the end of the course the student is expected to have acquired enough knowledge to correctly assess the toxicological risk from environmental pollutants in order to protect the health of populations in contaminated environments, to participate in impact assessment studies, to manage critical environmental issues and to communicate with professionals and people about toxicological risk in the most effective way.

Module B "Elements of environmental law". The main objective of the course is to introduce students to the main topics of environmental law, a legal discipline characterized by a high degree of technicality and interaction with other and different sciences. At the end of the course it is expected that the student, in addition to possessing a good knowledge of the problems and themes proposed, has acquired an adequate command of the legal language.

Overview of background in anatomy, physiology and biochemistry. Overview of general concepts in Toxicology: absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination of toxic substances (2 hours).
Methods of evaluation of the toxic action: acute toxicity, chronic toxicity, genotoxicity. Dose-effect and dose-response relationship. Receptor and non-receptor mediated mechanisms of action. Definition of NOEL, NOAEL, LOEL, LOAEL, DL50 (4 hours).
Methods for toxicity assessment: in vitro, in vivo and in silico (2 hours). Risk assessment and derivation of occupational and environmental (health-related) limit values (2 hours).
Toxicology of Industrial Processes:
- Metals (e.g. Lead, Mercury, Chromium etc.) (2 hours);
- Gas (e.g. Sarin, CO, etc.) (2 hours);
- Solvents (e.g. Hexane, Toluene, Benzene etc.) (2 hours);
- Plant protection products (organophosphorus etc.) (2 hours)
Environmental and occupational diseases (6 hours).
Environmental impact: regulatory context (SIA-VIA, VAS and VIS) (2 hours).
Impacts on soil, water and air of human activities and resulting impact on human health via the different routes of exposure (4 hours).
Evaluation of population exposure. Total Exposure Assessment (air in life and work environments, water, food) (2 hours).
IPPC and AIA. Italian regulation (2 hours).
REACH: Chemical Safety Assessment, Chemical Safety Report, Exposure Scenario, DNEL and DMEL; GLP and GHS (6 hours).
Case studies of:
- substances in the candidate list or subject to restriction (2 hours)
- industrial processes with high environmental impact and subject to Environmental Impact Assessment and related corrective actions (petrochemical, iron and steel industry, industrial accidents, waste-to-energy plants) (6 hours).
Integrated environmental management and environmental certification systems (2 hours).
Environmental risk management, corrective and mitigation actions, environmental policies, environmental communication and information (2 hours).

Module B focuses on some of the main issues of environmental law. After analyzing the principles and sources of environmental law, the focus is on specific areas:
- environmental assessments (Environmental Impact Assessment, Strategic Environmental Assessment and Impact Assessment)
- the European regulations REACH (concerning the registration, evaluation, authorization and restriction of chemical substances) and CLP (related to the classification, labeling and packaging of substances and mixtures)
- the "Seveso" directives: evolution of European legislation on the control of major-accident hazards involving dangerous substances
- environmental responsibility for preventing and repairing environmental damage
climate change, considering both adaptation and mitigation policies (with a focus on international agreements and on renewable energy and biofuels)
- the protection of biodiversity (with an analysis of international conventions and European legislation on the subject)
environmental labels / declarations (with a focus on protecting consumers from the phenomenon of greenwashing)
- the discipline of eco-crimes (with an examination of the law of May 22, 2015, No. 68 "Provisions on crimes against the environment")

- Klaasen C. "Casarett and Doull's Toxicology: The Basic Science of Poisons" McGraw-Hill Education Eds; 8th edition; ISBN-10: 0071769234; ISBN-13: 978-0071769235
- Paustenbach J. "The risk assessment of environmental and human health hazards: a textbook of case studies", A. Wiley-Interscience Publication, J. Wiley & Sons
Lesson slides will be also provided to the students (e-learning environment).

Module B "Elements of environmental law". The slides and the relevant legislation will be provided and made available in pdf format by the teacher on the e-learning website.

Lessons will be offered by videoconference (the teacher will be alternatively in the classrooms of Como and Varese).

Module B "Elements of environmental law". The educational objectives of the course will be achieved through lectures (via videoconference between the Como and Varese locations) for a total of 40 hours.

Reception by appointment by e-mail. The office is located at the first floor of the “Cube” building. Dep. of Science and High Technology, Via Valleggio 11, Como.

Module B "Elements of environmental law". Reception of students at the end of each lesson.