Degree course: 
Academic year when starting the degree: 
Academic year in which the course will be held: 
Second semester
Standard lectures hours: 

Knowledges of Anatomy, Biology, Basic Chemistry and Biochemistry are required

Final Examination: 

The final evaluation consists in a multiple choice exam, performed through a digital support (PC), organized in 40 questions on the entire course programs. The exams is passed if the student attains a score greater than 18/30.

The student must pass both a written test of 31 questions to be solved in 30 minutes. The questions will be related to the course content; and will be structured on: knowledge acquisition and understanding (45%) and application of the knowledge acquired (35%), judgment autonomy (10%), and learning ability (10%).

Voto Finale

The course of Human Physiology provides the Students with all information needed to understand, from the biophysical and quantitative standpoint, the mechanisms of functioning of body organs and systems and their control performed by the central and autonomic nervous system and by the endocrine system.

The General Pathology course provides the students with the fundamentals of modern cellular and molecular pathology. The course deals with the investigation of those pathological mechanisms common to all tissue-cell pathology; Etiology, Pathogenesis, Morphologic changes, Functional derangements and clinical significance. Attention is paid to the processes of cellular adaptation, cell death, cellular accumulation, tissue repair, inflammation, immunology and immunopathology, and neoplasia. This course takes the basic science that the student has learned in previous courses to clinical concepts.

Resting membrane potential. Action potential and its propagation. Synapses and neuromuscular junction. Afferent sensory systems. Neuromuscular spindles and Golgi receptors. Thermal and pain sensitivity. Neuromotor units. Spinal reflexes. Motor control, function of cortical areas.
Skeletal muscle. Myogram. Force-length diagram. Force-velocity diagram. Dynamic force-velocity diagram.
Blood volume and its distribution. Velocity, cross section and pressure in the circulatory districts. Mechanical features of blood vessels. Bernoulli and Poiseuille laws. Cardiac excictability. Cardiac mechanics. Work and mechanical efficiency of the heart. Arterial and venous pulse pressure in systemic and pulmonary circulations. Fluid and solute exchanges between microvasculature and interstitial space. Lymph formation and propulsion. Oedema. Pulmonary circulation. Control of cardiovascular function
Air composition and respiratory gasses. Spirometry, static lung volumes. Pulmonary and alveolar volume and flow. Respiratory mechanics.. Respiratory ratio. Alveolar gas equation.. Respiratory gas exchange and their transport in blood. Nervous and chemical control of respiratory function.
Renal function. Glomerular filtration. Renal clearance. Absorption of water, Na+, Cl-, bicarbonates, aminoacids, urea. Secretion of H+ and organic substances. Henle loop and vasa recta. Distal convolute and collecting tubules. Aldosterone and vasopressin. Regulation of volume and osmoticity in extracellular body fluids. Urine volume, pH and composition.
Physiological buffer solutions. Respiratory and metabolic acidosis and alkalosis and their compensation.
Metabolism. Energetic fuel: anaerobic and aerobic pathways. Energy available in food. Oxygen debt. Basal, rest ad exercise metabolism. O2 consumption.
Peristaltic movements. Composition and functions of salivary, gastric, hepatic, pancreatic and intestinal secretion. Control of secretions. Digestion and absorption of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, ions, vitamins, drugs and water.
Mechanisms of hormone release and action in the pituitary gland, adrenal glands, thyroid, paratyroids, pancreas

- extrinsic causes, examples and mechanisms of action of physical and chemical agents as well as poisons and nutritional factors
- Intrinsic causes, inheritance and examples of genetic diseases.
Pathogenesis, morphological changes and functional alterations cellular alteration concepts
- causes of cell damage
- cellular adaptation, growth and differentiation; atrophy hypotrophy/hypoplasia; hypertrophy; hyperplasia; metaplasia
- Cell death: necrosis and apoptosis
- Healing and repair of injuries
- Immunity and the immune system
- The inflammatory response: acute inflammation, chronic inflammation, inflammation associated pathologies, the innate immune response, cellular and chemical defense barriers
- Acquired immunity: lymphoid organs, cellular and chemical mediators, the humoral response and immunoglobulin classes, cell mediated responses, specificity, diversity and memory in the immune response, the major histocompatability complex, Vaccines, active and passive immunity, acquired and congenital immuno-deficiencies.
- Hypersensitivities, general concepts of organ specific and systemic autoimmune diseases, transplant rejection
- Cancer: Cell cycle control, nomenclature and classes of cancers, benign and malignant tumors, physical, chemical and viral carcinogenesis, genetics and cancer, oncogenes and oncosuppressors, definition and epidemiological evidence for multi-stage carcinogenesis, metastasis.
- General concepts of physiopathology of the cardiovascular system and the oral cavity
- General concepts of Clinical Pathology

- AA.VV. – FISIOLOGIA DELL'UOMO - a cura di P.E Di Prampero e A. Veicsteinas - Casa Editrice Edi-Ermes, Milano
- AA.VV. – FISIOLOGIA – a cura di P.Scotto, P. Mondola - Poletto Editore, Milano

“G.M. PONTIERI: Elementi di PATOLOGIA GENERALE per i Corsi di Laurea in Professioni Sanitarie. Piccin

The course objectives will be achieved through frontal lessons. The attendance of the lessons is obligatory.

During classroom discussions, students are encouraged to interact with teachers with questions and curiosities. During lectures, the lecturers will also present examples and daily facts that can make sense of the application / importance of the subjects of the lessons.

Professors will be available at their offices (Via Monte Generoso 71, "Ex Colonia Agricola "), after making an appointment by e-mail.