Degree course: 
Corso di First cycle degree in Nursing
Academic year when starting the degree: 
Academic year in which the course will be held: 
Course type: 
Basic compulsory subjects
Seat of the course: 
Varese - Università degli Studi dell'Insubria
Second semester
Ore minime di frequenza: 
Standard lectures hours: 
Detail of lecture’s hours: 
Lesson (24 hours)


To attend the course, students must have followed the two previous integrated courses (chemistry and biochemical propedeutics) and general biology
Understanding both the general pharmacology module requires basic knowledge of general chemistry and biochemical propagation and organ anatomy and physiology (particularly kidney function, digestive system, cardiovascular function) given in other courses.

Voto Finale

Formative objectives

The course aims to provide the student with information on basic biochemistry concepts, including structural biochemistry, major metabolic cycles and biologically important molecules such as vitamins, hormones and oxygen transducers. In all the subjects will be extrapolated aspects of specific medical interest, which will be addressed in particular with references to particular situations of obstetric interest. The course aims to provide a solid basis for molecular knowledge on which further concepts can be on clinical and theoretical obstetrical preparation.
The course aims to provide the student with information on the general principles of interaction between human organism and medicines in healthy subjects, patients, pregnancy and childbirth and their mechanism of action. Knowledge will also be provided on the setting correct dosing and drug-related risk assessment related to various factors (administration, adverse effects, drug intolerance, and pharmacological interactions), interpretation and application of legislative provisions for the conservation of use of drugs and the development of clinical trials for the discovery of new drugs. The course aims to provide pharmacological and toxicological bases for the management and use of medicines in hospital.

Content of the course

Carbohydrates: nomenclature and classification of aldose and ketosis. Proteins: Chemical Amino Acids Classification. Peptide bond and physical chemical characteristics. Protein structure, Lipids: Simple lipids: fatty acids. Complex Lipids Node on the structure of biological membranes. Cholesterol and its derivatives. The structural organization of biological membranes. Oxygen Conveyors: Structural and Functional Properties Enzymes: Properties and Enzymatic Kinetics. Enzyme Inhibition. Regulatory enzymes: allosteric enzymes and enzymes regulated covalently. Metabolism: generality, features of bioenergetics. The "energy charge". The respiratory chain and oxidative phosphorylation. Activating glucose. Glycogen metabolism. Glycolysis and control mechanisms. The pyruvic acid oxidative decarboxylation. The gluconeogenesis and control mechanisms. Oxygenation of fatty acids. The Krebs cycle, its energy balance, and control mechanisms. Anaplerotic reactions. Metabolism of amino acids. Mechanisms of defense against the toxicity of ammonia: urea cycle. The ketone bodies. Metabolic adaptations in fasting. Hormones: general properties and mechanisms of action.
- Pharmacokinetic Exercises (10 hours). the main routes of drug administration, and the pharmacokinetic processes of absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination of drugs in healthy subjects, in patients, during pregnancy and in puerperium. Quantitative pharmacokinetic topics will also be used to set a correct dose, such as distribution volume, clearance, half life, maintenance dose, and loading dose. The concept of bioavailability and the equivalent drug will be addressed.
- Pharmacodynamic properties (6 hours): the main mechanisms underlying drug action. They will also discuss the theoretical basis for the interpretation of drug action by imparting the concepts of agonist, antagonist, partial agonist. Dosage-response curves that allow you to interpret efficacy and pharmacological potency. Drug-toxicology topics will be addressed to interpret toxic drug effects, drug interactions, abuse, tolerance, addiction.
-Examples of pharmaceutical legislation, experimentation (4 hours). The main laws in force in Italy and the European Union concerning the production, classification of medicines, prescription and pharmacovigilance. Preclinical and clinical studies will also be described for the discovery of new drugs.


Nelson et al: Introduction to Biochemistry by Lehninger Zanichelli
Ferrier DR The basics of biochemistry Zanichelli
General and clinical pharmacology. Katzung B.G. Piccin Ed IX edition on the XII edition of English language
Pharmacology. Rang, Dale, Ritter, Flower, Henderson. Elsevier Ed. VII edition

Parent course