Degree course: 
Corso di Long single cycle degree (6 years) in School of Dentistry
Academic year when starting the degree: 
Academic year in which the course will be held: 
Course type: 
Basic compulsory subjects
Second semester
Standard lectures hours: 
Detail of lecture’s hours: 
Lesson (54 hours)

Basic knowledge of biology. Previous examination of Histology and Embryology

Final Examination: 

The course includes a finaloral examination, consisting in a interview with two examinators and comprising approximately eight to ten open questions about the topics of the course.

Voto Finale

The course of Human Anatomy is part of a group of morpho-functional courses preceding the clinical courses and aims to consolidate a basic knowledge of the main organs and apparati of the human body. More space will be dedicated to a deeper knowledge of the stomatognatic apparatus: bones, muscles, junctions, glands, blood vessels and nerves. The expected results are the knowledge of these structures and the ability to correlate them in an inegrate anatomical frame. This ability will enable the student to a correct approach to the subsequent practice of radiology, anestesiology and maxillo-facial surgery.

Main reference planes and axis. Nomina anatomica.
Tne bones: general asepcts, morphology, architecture, taxonomy.
The skull. Neurocranium and splancnocranium.
The trunk. The spine and the thoracic cage.
The junctions: taxonomy and functional aspects.
The muscles of the head and neck: masticatory and mimic muscles.
The heart: fibrous skeleton, contractile tissue, specific tissue. Valves and cavities.
The aorta and her branches. Detailed vascularization of head and neck. Branches of the external carotid.
The small circle: pulmonary arteries and veins.
The superior vena cava: vv.azygos, v.anonima, subclavian and jugular veins. The dural sinuses.
The inferior vena cava: the iliac veins, the portal circulation.
Lymphatic organs: lymph nodes, the thymus, the spleen, the bone marrow.
The nasal and paranasal cavities. The larynx, trachea, bronchi and lungs.
The mouth and its vestibule. The tongue. The salivary glands. The pharynx, oesophagus, stomach. Small and large intestine:duedenum, jejunum, ileum. The liver and the bile ducts. The pancreas.

The kidney and the urinary ducts.

Organization of the central nervous system. The brain, brainstem,dienchephalon, telencephalon, cerebellum. The spinal cord; the nerve roots. White and grey matter and their constitution. Spinal nerves and the formation of plexi. Encephalic nerves: origin, pathway and branches. Motor and sensitive pathways. The proprioception and the gut sensitivity. The eye and the ear.
The ortosymphatetic and parasymphatetic systems.
The course spans 54 hours, including 4 hours of laboratory.

The course does not follow any particular text. The students are invited to select a text of their choice among several suggested options, including
Martini-Simmons-Tallitsch, Anatomia Umana, Edises
Tortora-Nielsen, Principi di Anatomia Umana, Ambrosiana; Saladin, Anatomia Umana, Piccin; Bentivoglio et al., Anatomia Umana e Istologia, Minerva medica; Bareggi et al., Anatomia Umana, Idelson Gnocchi; Seeley, Anatomia Umana, Idelson Gnocchi.
Optional, more specialistic texts: Prometetheus, Testo-atlante di anatomia - Testa e collo, Edises; Lloyd DuBrul, Anatomia Orale di Sicher, Edi Ermes.

Lectures; hands-on experiences of osteology