- Assessment methods
- Learning objectives
- Teaching methods
For the first semester it is required a minimal knowledge of the elements and of the basis of the biology.
For the part of the course of the second semester it is required to have passed the partial exam of the first semester.
CHEMISTRY AND PROPEDEUTICAL BIOCHEMISTRY: Written exam with two separate parts: a quiz of 15 questions with 4 possible answers, one will be the right answer; the second part contains 2 open questions. The total vote is considered sufficient when both parts are sufficiently answered.
BIOLOGY: quiz of 15 questions with 4 answers to choose, and 1 right answer to give.
For both the partial tests, in case the Professor needs to verify the knowledge of the subject by the student, an oral exam of 5-10 minutes can be followed.
The final vote will be the mean of the two partial exams.
BIOCHEMISTRY: The exam oF the biochemistry module consists of 30 multiple choice questions (five possible answers, one of which is true and to be identified by the student) regarding the comprehension of the topics covered. The evaluation will NOT be sufficient with ess than 18 correct answers.
PHARMACOLOGY: The exam for the Pharmacology Module consists of 27 statements regarding the different topics discussed, which the student must indicate whether true or false. The test foresees also a form of an elaborate of a topic dealt with during the course. For the evaluation, any correct statement of the "true or false" test will be worth a point and no points will be removed as a result of incorrect answers. The open question can be a minimum of 3 points to a maximum of 3 points. For a sufficient rating (18), the sum of the votes obtained in the "true or false" test and the one obtained in the open question will be 18/30.
CHEMISTRY: the knowledge of atoms, molecules and materials, chemical reactions and basic molecules of biochemistry. The student should be able at the end of the course to resolve problems concerning equiliblirum of reaction, redox and preparation of solutions.
Study of the mitosis and the meiosis. Study of the macromolecules of life with particular interest in DNA (Structure and replication), RNA (transcription) and the mechanism of the translation. At the end of the couse the student need to acquire the concets cited above.
bIOCHEMISTRY: The course aims to provide students with information on the fundamental concepts of biochemistry, including structural biochemistry, the main metabolic cycles and molecules of particular biological interest, such as vitamins, hormones and oxygen transporters. In all the topics, aspects of specific medical interest will be extrapolated, and treated in particular with reference to particular situations of obstetric interest. The course aims to provide a solid base of molecular knowledge on which further concepts related to clinical and theoretical obstetric preparation can be based.
PHARMACOLOGY: The course aims to transmit information concerning the general principles underlying the interaction between the human body and drugs in healthy subjects, patients, during pregnancy and puerperium and their mechanisms of action. In particular the following topics will be considered: principles underlying a correct posology and administration schedule; evaluation of drug-related risk factors (administration route, adverse events, intolerance to drugs, drug interactions), interpretation and application of law dispositions concerning drug store and use and the development of new drugs.The course aims to give the fundamental pharmacological and toxicological basis for the correct handling and use of drugs.
CHEMISTRY: ATOMIC STRUCTURE, THE CHEMICAL BOND, SOLUTIONS, CHEMICAL REACTIONS AND CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM, pH, ALCOHOLS AND THEIR DERIVATIVES, ALDEHYDES AND KETONES, CARBOXYLIC ACIDS AND THEIR DERIVATIVES, AMINES, CARBOHYDRATES, AMINO ACIDS AND LIPIDS
APPLIED BIOLOGY: The macromolecules of life. Eukariotic and prokariotic cells. Aploid and diploid organisms. Cellular replication: mitosis and meiosis. Examples of cellular cicles. DNA: From the discover to the structure. RNA: THe transcription. The ribosomes and the translation mechanism. Chromatin and chromsome structure. Introduction to the mutations.
BIOCHEMISTRY: Biomolecules characteristics; Proteins: modifications, allostery; enzymes and their activity controls; Biological Membranes and Transport; The Composition and Architecture of Membranes. Membrane Dynamics. Solute Transport across Membrane. Glucose transport and its regulation. Molecules that can pass the BBB. Haemoglobin and myoglobin. Biosignaling: general features of signal transduction. Bioenergetics and Biochemical Reaction Types. Vitamins and essential molecules. Glycolysis, Gluconeogenesis, and the Pentose Phosphate Pathway. The Metabolism of Glycogen. The Citric Acid Cycle. Digestion, Mobilization, and Transport of lipids. Amino Acid Oxidation and the Production of Urea Metabolic Fates of Amino Groups. Principles of Metabolic Regulation. Analysis of Metabolic Control: insulin and glucagon; AMPK. Synthesis and catabolism of HEME.
PHARMACOLOGY: - Pharmacokinetic lineages (9 hours). The main routes of drug administration will be described, and the pharmacokinetic processes of absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination of drugs in healthy subjects and in patients. Also, some quantitative pharmacokinetic arguments will be used to set a proper dose, such as distribution volume, clearance, half-life, maintenance dose, loading dose. The concept of bioavailability and the equivalent drug will be addressed.
Pharmacodynamic lineages (8 hours): the main mechanisms underlying drug action will be described. It will also discuss the theoretical basis for the interpretation of drug action by imparting the concepts of agonist, antagonist, partial agonist. Dosage-response curves will be described to allow interpretation of efficacy and pharmacological potency. Drug-toxicology topics will be addressed to interpret toxic drug effects, drug interactions, abuse, tolerance, and dependence.
-Pharmaceutical legislation, experimentation (3 hours). The main laws in force in Italy and the European Union concerning the production, classification of medicines, prescription and pharmacovigilance will be described. Preclinical and clinical studies will also be described for the discovery of new drugs.
CHEMISTRY: 1-Chemistry, biochemistry and applied biology, 2008, ZANICHELLI
2-Chemistry and propedeutic biochemistry, Edi-ermes
3-Chemistry for biomedical sciences, George Sackheim, Dennis Lehman, 2012, Edises.
APPLIED BIOLOGY: Chimica, Biochimica e biologia applicata, 2a edizione, 2008, ZANICHELLI.
BIOCHEMISTRY: Nelson et al: Introduzione alla biochimica di Lehninger Zanichelli
Ferrier DR Le basi della biochimica Zanichelli
PHARMACOLOGY:General and Clinical Pharmacology. Katzung B.G. McGraw Hill Ed LANGE. XIV Edition
Pharmacology. Rang, Dale, Ritter, Flower, Henderson. Elsevier
Further information may be given during the lessons.
In the teachers' presentations there will be links to web pages for further information. For reception, the students hould write an email for appointmens.