Degree course: 
Corso di First cycle degree in Biomedical Laboratory techniques
Academyc year when starting the degree: 
Academyc year when helding the course: 
First Semester
Standard lectures hours: 

To be admitted to the final exam of Human Physiology it is necessary to possess a positive evaluation of the exam of Human Anatomy

The evaluation of the attainment of the objectives foreseen by the integrated Course of Physiopatology will be performed through two separate tests of Human Physiology and of Pathology. The exam of Physiology consists of a multiple choices test of 40 questions delivered through a PC with a score of 0.825 for each correct answer and 0 for each wrong or missing answer.
The exam of Pathology will be performed through a test with written open questions. The exam aims at defining the knowledge and the degree of comprehensions of the human physiological and pathological mechanisms, the capacity to apply knowledge and comprehension and the learning capacity of the issues dealt with in the two aggregated Courses.
The exam is passed for scores higher than 18/30.

Voto Finale

Pathophysiology studies the human vital functions in normal and altered conditions and analyses the mechanisms through which the organism realizes ad maintains its internal homeostasis at molecular, cellular and tissue level in spite of the modification of the surrounding environment. In addition it describes the mechanisms through which drugs modify the cellular and tussue functions.
The objective of the Course of Pathophysiology will be to provide graduates with all the information necessary to understand, from a biophysical-quantitative point of view, the functioning of the various organs and systems of the body under normal conditions and their control by the nervous system central and autonomous and endocrine system.

Dublin descriptor 1: knowledge and understanding
Students must learn the basics of biophysics and the functioning of cells, tissues and organs in physiological conditions;

Dublin descriptor 2: applied knowledge and understanding
Students must use the acquired knowledge to understand complex and integrated physiological mechanisms.

Dublin descriptor 3: independent judgment
Ability to reason about the correlation between structure, biophysical behavior and the function of organs and systems.
Dublin descriptor 4: communication skills
Capability to clearly describe the discussed issues by using the adequate technical language.

Dublin descriptor 5: ability to learn
Ability to associate quantitative and functional parameters with changes in physiological conditions.

The Course will deal with the physiology and pathology of the following systems:
Central and autonomous nervous system.
Skeletal muscle and locomotion.
Cardiac muscle.
Vascular systemic circulation and lymphatic system.
Pulmonary and coronary circulation. Control of cardiovascular function.
Respiratory system, gas exchanges and transport.
Nervous and chemical control of respiratory function.
Renal system and regulation of volume and osmoticity in extracellular body fluids.
Acid-base equilibrium.
Digestive system.
Endocrine system.

For the Physiology course: Subdivisions and composition of body fluids.
Cell electrophysiology. Resting cell membrane potential. Action potential and its propagation. Synaptic function. Synaptic properties and neurotransmitters. Nervous conduction. Excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic potential. Neuromuscular junction.
Nervous system. Sensory system. Generator and receptor membrane potential. Somatic sensations. Tactile and position senses. Neuromuscular spindles and Golgi tendon organs;  and  circuits. Sensory pathways for transmitting somatic signals to central nervous system. Sensory cortex Thermal sensation. Pain. Types of pain receptors. Referred and visceral pain. Peripheral and central control of pain. Vestibular sensation and maintenance of equilibrium. Vestibular apparatus. Transmission of sound through the medium and inner ear. The retina as a receptor. The chemical senses – Taste and Smell. The neuromotor unit. Organization of spinal cord for motor function. Flexor and withdrawal reflexes, crossed extended reflex. Cortical and brainstem control of motor function. Role of reticular and vestibular nuclei. Control of posture. Cerebellum. Basal ganglia. Cerebral cortex. EEG. Association areas. Language. Different function of the two hemispheres. Limbic system and Hypothalamus. Functions of the limbic system. Autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic and parasympathetic function. And their control of distinct organs function.
Muscle and locomotion. Function of skeletal muscle. Elastic and contractile components. Isometric, isotonic and iso-velocity contraction. Single twitch and tetanisation. Force-length diagram. Force-velocity diagram. Dynamic force-velocity diagram.
Heart. Cardiac pace-maker.. Electrocardiogram. Control of cardiac function. centres, efferent pathways. Cardiac mechanics. Valves function. Ventricular pressure and volume during cardiac cycle. Cardiac stroke and cardiac output.
Circulatory system. Distribution of blood volume. Velocity, cross section and pressure in the circulatory districts. Mechanical features of blood vessels and Laplace law. Bernoully law. Orthostatic ipotension. Laminar and turbulent flow. Pulse pressure velocity and transit time. Fluid and solute exchanges between microvasculature and interstitial space. Control of interstitial volume. Lymph formation and propulsion. Nervous and endocrine control of arterial pressure. Special districts. Pulmonary circulation.
Respiratory system. Ambient and alveolar air composition. Spirometry, static lung volumes. Pulmonary and alveolar volume and flow. Intrapleural pressure and pneumothorax. Respiratory gas exchanges. O2 consumption and CO2. production. Respiratory ratio. Alveolar gas equation. Alveolo-capillary respiratory gas diffusion. O2 and CO2 transport in blood transport in blood. Hypoxia. Nervous and chemical control of respiratory function.
Excretory system. Glomerular filtration: composition of glomerular filtrate. Renal blood flow and filtration fraction. Glomerular auto regulation. Renal clearance. Proximal tubule Henle loop. Osmolarity in tubular and extracellular fluid. Vasa recta. Distal convolute and collecting tubules. Absorption of water and Na+; excretion of H+, K+. Aldosterone and vasopressine. Regulation of volume and osmoticity in extracellular body fluids. Acid-base equilibrium. Physiological buffer solutions. H+ production and its buffering. Respiratory and metabolic acidosis and alkalosis. Control of pH by renal and respiratory correction. Metabolism. Energetic fuels, oxygen consumption. Basal, rest ad exercise metabolism.
Digestive system. General features of the digestive tube. Salivary and gastric secretion and their nervous control. Bile secretion and functions. Composition and functions of pancreatic and intestinal secretion. Endocrine control of secretions. Digestion and absorption of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, ions (Fe++, Ca++, etc.), vitamins, drugs and water.
Endocrine system. Mechanisms of

For the Physiology course:
AA.VV. – FISIOLOGIA DELL'UOMO - a cura di P.E Di Prampero e A. Veicsteinas - Casa Editrice Edi-Ermes, Milano
AA.VV. – FISIOLOGIA – a cura di P.Scotto, P. Mondola - Poletto Editore, Milano

Teaching will be given through frontal lessons. With the aid of images, schemas, graphs and biophysical analysis of the functioning mechanisms of cells, tissues and organs, the student will be driven to the comprehension of the different but integrated physiological processes

Professors are available for the students through appointment set through the their institutional e-mail address.