Degree course: 
Corso di First cycle degree in Biomedical Laboratory techniques
Academic year when starting the degree: 
Academic year in which the course will be held: 
First Semester
Standard lectures hours: 

Basic knowledge of biology

Final Examination: 

The course includes an oral final examination, consisting in an interview with two examiners with eight-ten open questions on the contents of the course.

Voto Finale

The course aims to extend and consolidate a basic knowledge of the structure and organization of the human body, including
- knowledge of the structure and the main functions of the cell;
- structure and taxonomy of the tissues;
- knowledge of the main organs and apparates of the human body.

The cell membrane: structure, functions, special structures.
The nucleus: morphology, composition, DNA, perinuclear cisterna.
Cytoplasm organs: SER, RER, the ribosome, protein synthesis, lysosomes and the phagocytosis, mitocondria, centrioles (structure and functions).
Life functions of the cell: metabolism, mitosis, meiosis.

Epitelial tissues; esocrine and endocrine glands.
Connective tissues: dense, lax, cartilage, bone, blood, adipose tissue.
Muscular tissues: smooth, striated, cardiac.
Nervous tissue: neurons, glia, neuromuscular junction, synapses.
The Histology section spans approx. 12 hours.

Body scheme and parts. The anatomical position. reference planes and axis. Nomina anatomica.

Tne bones. Gross anatomy, architecture, taxonomy.
The skull. Neurocranium and splancnocranium.
The trunk. The spine and the thoracic cage.
The skeleton of the upper limb. The skeleton of the lower limb. The junctions: taxonomy and functional aspects. The muscles: general and functional aspects.

The heart: fibrous skeleton, contractile tissue, the specific tissue. Valves and cavities. Arteries, veins and capillaries: significance and implications of collateral circles and anastomoses. The aorta and her branches. The small circle. Venous drainage of the dura mater. The portal circulation.
Lymphatic organs: lymph nodes, the thymus, the spleen, the bone marrow. Lymph nodes of the neck, the thorax, the abdomen, the limbs.
The nasal and paranasal cavities. Larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs.

The mouth and its vestibule. The tongue. The salivary glands. The pharynx, oesophagus, stomach. Small and large intestine:duedenum, jejunum, ileum. The liver and the bile ducts. The pancreas.

The kidney and its parts. The urinary tract. The male and female urethra.

Organization of the central nervous system. The brain, brainstem,dienchephalon, telencephalon, cerebellum. The spinal cord; the nerve roots. White and grey matter and their constitution. Motor and sensitive pathways. The proprioception and the gut sensitivity.
The Anatomy section spans approx. 36 hours.

The course does not follow any text. The students can choose a text of their preference among Tortora-Nielsen, Principi di Anatomia Umana, Ambrosiana;
Martini-Simmons-Tallitsch, Anatomia Umana, Edises
Saladin, Anatomia Umana, Piccin; Bentivoglio et al., Anatomia Umana e Istologia, Minerva medica; Bareggi et al., Anatomia Umana, Idelson Gnocchi; Seeley, Anatomia Umana, Idelson Gnocchi

The course will mainly consist of lectures with PPT slideshows. It will contain some projections of anatomical dissections (in English).