HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY 2

Degree course: 
Corso di First cycle degree in Movement science
Academyc year when starting the degree: 
2018/2019
Year: 
2
Academyc year when helding the course: 
2019/2020
Course type: 
Compulsory subjects, characteristic of the class
Credits: 
4
Period: 
First Semester
Standard lectures hours: 
40
Detail of lecture’s hours: 
Lesson (40 hours)
Requirements: 

To be admitted to the final exam of Human Physiology 1 it is necessary to possess a positive evaluation of the exams of Human Anatomy

Final Examination: 
Orale

The evaluation of the attainment of the objectives foreseen by the integrated Course is performed through a final exam on all issues presented in the detailed program of the Courses of Human Physiology 1 and Human Physiology 2. The exam consists of a multiple choices test of 40 questions, whose positive evaluation (score higher than 18/30) allows to proceed to the oral evaluation, consisting of open questions. The whole exam aims at defining the knowledge and the degree of comprehensions of the human physiological mechanisms, the capacity to apply knowledge and comprehension and the learning capacity of the issues dealt with in the courses of Human Physiology 1 and Human Physiology 2.
The score of the exam of Human Physiology will take into account the evaluation of both the exams of Human Physiology 1 and Human Physiology 2.

Assessment: 
Voto Finale

Physiology studies the human vital functions and analyses he mechanisms through which the organism realizes ad maintains its internal homeostasis at molecular, cellular and tissue level in spite of the modification of the surrounding environment.
The objective of the Course Human Physiology 1 will be to provide graduates with all the information necessary to understand, from a biophysical-quantitative point of view, the functioning of the various organs and systems of the body under normal conditions and their control by the nervous system central and autonomous and endocrine system.

Dublin descriptor 1: knowledge and understanding
Students must learn the basics of biophysics and the functioning of cells, tissues and organs in physiological conditions;

Dublin descriptor 2: applied knowledge and understanding
Students must use the acquired knowledge to understand complex and integrated physiological mechanisms.

Dublin descriptor 3: independent judgment
Ability to reason about the correlation between structure, biophysical behavior and the function of organs and systems.
Dublin descriptor 4: communication skills
Capability to clearly describe the discussed issues by using the adequate technical language.

Dublin descriptor 5: ability to learn
Ability to associate quantitative and functional parameters with changes in physiological conditions.

The Course will deal with the biophysical mechanisms that guarantees the normal functions and omeostatic control in the following systems:
Skeletal muscle and locomotion.
Cardiac muscle.
Vascular systemic circulation and lymphatic system.
Pulmonary and coronary circulation. Control of cardiovascular function.
Respiratory system, gas exchanges and transport.
Nervous and chemical control of respiratory function.
Renal system and regulation of volume and osmoticity in extracellular body fluids.
Acid-base equilibrium.
Metabolism.
Thermoregulation.
Digestive system.
Endocrine system.

Muscle and locomotion. Isometric, isotonic and iso-velocity contraction. Force-length, force-velocity and dynamic force-velocity diagrams.
Heart. Cardiac pace-maker. Electrocardiogram. Control of cardiac function. Cardiac mechanics. Valves function. Ventricular pressure and volume during cardiac cycle. Cardiac stroke and cardiac output. Work output, cardiac efficiency and metabolism.
Distribution of blood volume. Velocity, cross section and pressure in the circulatory districts. Mechanical features of blood vessels. Laplace and Bernoully laws. Poiseuille law. Laminar and turbulent flow. Arterial and venous pulse pressure. Pressure distribution in the systemic and pulmonary circulation. Fluid and solute exchanges between microvasculature and interstitial space. Diffusion and convection. Control of interstitial volume and lymph formation. Oedema. Control of cardiovascualr function. Pulmonary and coronary circulation.
Respiratory system. Air composition and respiratory gasses. Spirometry, static lung volumes. Pulmonary and alveolar volume and flow. Static. Lung, chest and respiratory system pressure-volume curves. Intrapleural pressure and pneumothorax. Dynamics Mechanical work of respiration. Respiratory gas exchanges. O2 consumption and CO2. production. Respiratory ratio. Alveolar gas equation. Alveolo-capillary respiratory gas diffusion. O2 and CO2 transport in blood transport in blood. Ventilation-perfusion ratio. Artero-venous shunt, hypoxia. Nervous and chemical control of respiratory function.
Renal system. Glomerular filtration: composition of glomerular filtrate. Renal blood flow and filtration fraction. Glomerular auto regulation. Renal clearance. Proximal tubule Absorption of water, Na+, Cl-, bicarbonates, aminoacids, urea. Secretion of H+ and organic substances. Henle loop. Counter current mechanism. Osmolarity in tubular and extracellular fluid. Vasa recta. Distal convolute and collecting tubules. Absorption of water and Na+; excretion of H+, K+. Aldosterone and vasopressine. Regulation of volume and osmoticity in extracellular body fluids. Urine volume, pH and composition.
Acid-base equilibrium. Physiological buffer solutions. H+ production and its buffering. Respiratory and metabolic acidosis and alkalosis. Control of pH by renal and respiratory correction.
Metabolism. Energetic fuel: anaerobic and aerobic pathways. Energy available in food. Oxygen debt. Basal, rest ad exercise metabolism. O2 consumption.
Thermoregulation. Thermal equilibrium. Physiological mechanisms of heat production and dispersion. Nervous and endocrine control of heat production and dispersion.
Digestive system. General features of the digestive tube. Peristaltic movements. Salivary and gastric secretion and their nervous control. Bile secretion and functions. Composition and functions of pancreatic and intestinal secretion. Endocrine control of secretions. Digestion and absorption of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, ions (Fe++, Ca++, etc.), vitamins, drugs and water.
Endocrine system. Mechanisms of hormone release and action. Pituitary gland. Anterior lobe. Hypotalamic neurosecretion and portal blood vessels. Releasing (RH) and inhibiting hormones (IH). Somatotropin, thyreotropin, corticotropin, gonadotropin, prolactine. Intermediate lobe: melatonine. Posterior lobe: oxytocine and ADH. Adrenal glands. Medulla: catecholamines. Cortical: glucocorticoids, mineralcorticoids, their function and regulation. Thyroid Function and secretion of thyroid hormones. Paratyroids. Metabolisms and function of calcium and fosphate ions. Vitamin D. Endocrine pancreas. Effect of insulin and glucagone on glucose metabolism. Gonads. Endocrine aspects of male and female sexual organs. Gastrointestinal hormones.

AA.VV. – FISIOLOGIA UMANA – a cura di F.Grassi, D.Negrini, C.A. Porro - Poletto Editore, Milano
AA.VV. – FISIOLOGIA MEDICA - a cura di F. Conti - Casa Editrice Edi-Ermes, Milano
Guyton & Hall – FISIOLOGIA MEDICA – Elsevier-Masson

Teaching will be given through frontal lessons. With the aid of images, schemas, graphs and biophysical analysis of the functioning mechanisms of cells, tissues and organs, the student will be driven to the comprehension of the different but integrated physiological processes

Prof. Negrini is available for the students by appointment taken through e-mail address: daniela.negrini@uninsubria.it

Professors