General and inorganic Chemistry

Degree course: 
Corso di First cycle degree in SCIENZE BIOLOGICHE
Academic year when starting the degree: 
Academic year in which the course will be held: 
Cognomi M-Z
Course type: 
Basic compulsory subjects
First Semester
Standard lectures hours: 

The course starts from elementary notions and does require previous knowledge of chemistry from high school. Basic knowledges of mathematics and physics, provided by the high school, are required.

Final Examination: 

The examination consists in a written test comprising multiple-choice questions, pertinent to theoretical topics, and stoichiometry problems. The exam is considered passed with a vote ≥ 18/30.

Voto Finale

The aim of the course is to provide students with fundamental concepts on chemistry to understand how the macroscopic properties of matter develop from atomic and molecular structures and relative properties. The course discuss the tools that allow understanding the tendency of substances to react, for instance breaking or forming bonds, and the corresponding energy exchanges, in relation with possible applications and with the behaviour of materials. Numerical exercises will complement the topics discussed in classroom.

Lectures (6,5 CFU-52 hrs in classroom)

The atomic nature of matter (2 Credits–16 hrs)
Matter: atoms ands molecules, elements and compounds, the mole. Types of chemical reactions.
Atomic theory of matter (Dalton), chemical periodicity and overview of quantum mechanics: photoelectric effect, De Broglie’s equation, Heinseberg uncertainly principle, Schrödinger equation. Quantum numbers and atomic orbitals. Electronic structure and atoms properties: Pauli principle, Hund rule and “aufbau prinzip”. The periodic table and dependence of atomic properties on the electronic structure.
Chemical bonding: structure and properties of the substances. Ionic bond. Covalent bond and molecular geometry, VSEPR theory. Hybrid orbitals and steric number. Electronegativity according to Pauling and molecular polarity.
Intermolecular attractions and the properties of liquids and solids. Hydrogen bond. Gaseous state and condensed phase. Metallic solids, ionic solids, covalent solids and molecular solids.
Inorganic chemical nomenclature.
Thermochemistry and thermodynamics (1 Credits–8 hrs)
The first law of thermodynamics. State function enthalpy (H) and Hess’s law. Enthalpy of formation, reaction and combustion. The second law and the third law of thermodynamics: state function entropy (S) and state function Gibbs free energy (G).
Chemical equilibria (0,750 Credits–6 hrs)
Chemical equilibrium and equilibrium constants: homogenous and heterogeneous equilibria. Le Châtelier’s principle and chemical equilibria.
Liquids and solutions (0,500 Credits–4 hrs)
Solutions properties: ideal solutions, Raoult’s law and Henry’s law. Phase equilibria. Colligative properties of solutions. Phase diagrams.
Chemical transformations in water solutions (2 Credits–16 hrs)
Acids and bases: Arrhenius, Brönsted and Lewis definitions. Water and the pH scale: strong acid and base, weak acids and bases. Buffer solutions. Dissolution and precipitation equilibria.
Redox reactions and electrochemistry: balancing redox equations, using standard reduction potentials, Nernst equation, free energy and cell voltage. Electrolysis and Faraday’s law.
Bioinorganic chemistry (0,250 Credits–2 hrs)
An overview of inorganic chemistry topics that relate to the biochemical field.

Tutorials (1 CFU–12 hrs in classroom)

Atomic and molecular mass, isotopes. Mole and number of molecules. Chemical reactions and equations. Ideal gases and mixtures gases. Concentrations and stoichiometry of the reactions in aqueous solutions. Atomic and molecular structures, chemical bonds. Intermolecular forces: solids, liquids, gases. Energy and energy balances, thermodynamics and chemical equilibrium. Colligative properties of solutions. Electrolyte solutions: salts, acids, bases and pH. Spontaneity of redox reactions. Electrochemical and electrolytic cells.

Laboratory activites (0,500 CFU-8 hrs of practical experiences)

The course will be integrated by 2 experimental activities (redox and acid-base titrations), each of 4 hours to be held in the didactic laboratory. Professor will communicate the calendar of lab activities. The attendance at lab activities is mandatory and it will be considered in the final evaluation.

Theory: Brown, Lemay, Bursten, Murphy, Woodward “Fondamenti di Chimica” Ed. EdiSES

Stoichiometry: D'Arrigo, Famulari, Gambarotti, Scotti “Chimica: Esercizi e Casi Pratici” Ed. EdiSES

Other materials, when deemed necessary, wiil be made available via e-learning

The course consists of lectures (6,5 CFU), classroom exercises (1 CFU) and experiments in laboratory (0,500 CFU). In the lectures and tutorials, topics are discussed exploiting overhead presentations and by solving numerical problems.

Upon appointment, as agreed via e-mail, using the official student’s address:
Professor’s e-mail address:

Schedule of educational activities
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Exam sessions
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