Plant Biology

Degree course: 
Corso di First cycle degree in SCIENZE BIOLOGICHE
Academyc year when starting the degree: 
Academyc year when helding the course: 
Cognomi M-Z
Course type: 
Compulsory subjects, characteristic of the class
First Semester
Standard lectures hours: 

Pre-requisites not required

Final Examination: 

The student will be asked to demonstrate a thorough comprehension regarding the constitutive topics covered in all five training objectives. Students will perform three intermediate tests and a final exam. Two intermediate tests consist of multiple-choice test, corresponding tests and written text on the topics of training objectives 1 and 2 the first, 3 4 and 5 the second, respectively. The second text will coincide with the official date of the first exam session. The final score is the mean of all the evaluative tests. The evaluation process weighs, in addition to the ability to learn, understand ability and communicate skills.
In subsequent exam sessions the verification will take place in the same way, considering a longer time available being the two tests performed on the same day.

Voto Finale

The present course is in the first year, aims at training the students on the study of the form and function of plants, from cell to tree. The same also aims to provide the basis for applied approaches, which students will encounter during their academic training. The following learning results are expected:
1. to acquire the basic and advanced knowledge on the organization and physiology of plant cell
2. to understand the morpho-anatomical organization of vascular plants, in relation to their physiology and phylogenetic position
3. to acquire the basic knowledge on Systematic Botany

The frontal lessons cover the following topics (7.5 cfu, 60h):

Plant cell (14h, training objective 1)
• Cell wall: structure and function
• Plasmodesmata and cytodieresis
• Plastid: types of plastids, ultrastructure and function
• Vacuole: structure and function
• Cell turgor
• Expansion of plant cell walls during cellular growth

Tissues and Morphology (14h, training objective 2)
• Plant tissues: meristematic, parenchimatic, tegumental, mechanical, conductive, secretory
• Primary and secondary growth
• Morphology and anatomy of the organs in relation to their physiological function

Physiology (24h, training objective 2)
• Photosynthesis of C3, C4 and CAM plants
• Photorespiration
• Sap and sieve flows
• Tropisms and nastic movements
• Roots and gravitropism, nutrient uptake, symbiosis with bacteria and mycorrhiza
• Photoperiodism
• Seed germination and dormancy

Plant systematic (8h, training objective 3)
• Sexsual, asexsual (vegetative) and sporogony reproductions. Apomixis and metagenetic cycles.
• Systematics of Gymnosperms and Angiosperms

Laboratory cover the following activities (0.5 cfu, 8h):
• Extraction, separation and absorbance spectrum of photosynthetic pigments (4h, training objective 1, 2)
• Anatomical sections and staining of stem and root (4h, training objective 2)
• Instruments for morphological and physiological measurements (Gas exchange, fluorescence, rhizo-tron, Scholander bomb (4h, training objective 2)
• Species identification by mean of analytical key (4h, training objective 3)

Slides of the lessons, lecture notes and scientific papers can be downloaded from the Elearning platform or provided by the lecturer. The following book text are suggested:
• Evert R.F., Eichorn S.E. Biology of Plants (8th edition). 2013, Palgrave Macmillan

The course consists of 60h of frontal lessons and 8h of laboratory activities, totaling 68h (8 CFU). The addressed topics will be integrated by presentation of picture slides, graphics, diagrams and videos useful to clarify the concepts.
For laboratory activities, students are divided in small groups and are assigned a location for the self-conduct experiment. The access to the rooms is allowed only if equipped with white coat. The presence of the lecturer and one or more assistants will be guaranteed. Lab attendance is mandatory, and absence should not exceed 25% (4h) of the laboratory planned program.

Meetings preferably by appointment (by email request). Lecturer answers emails only if signed and with domain
Lecturer is available for meeting aimed at clarifying and analyzing the treated topics, preferably for groups of students