Degree course: 
Corso di Second cycle degree in ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES
Academic year when starting the degree: 
Academic year in which the course will be held: 
First Semester
Standard lectures hours: 

Knowledge in the fields of Environmental and Occupational Hygiene, General Biology, Physics, Inorganic and Organic Chemistry, Environmental Chemistry are recommended. Knowledge of both spoken and written English is very useful.

Final Examination: 

The final exam consists in an oral or written exam. Questions will be based on the syllabus and the final score will be based on comprehension, capacity to apply theoretical concepts to real cases, autonomy of judgement, communication skills - correct terminology and learning abilities.

Voto Finale

Study of man-environment interactions, in terms of effects of human activities and anthropogenic pressures on environmental systems and also in terms of potential effects of the contamination of life and work environments on human health (toxicological risk). Particular emphasis will be given to effects and arising from exposure to contaminants (xenobiotics, endocrine disruptors, atmospheric particulate), to their mechanisms of action, to the environmental pressure on biological systems in vivo and in vitro (DNA and protein damage, cell damage, reproductive abnormalities , developmental alterations, teratogenesis and other biomarkers). The genetic, epigenetic and molecular mechanisms that regulate cell cycle and metabolic functions.
At the end of the course the student is expected to have acquired enough knowledge to correctly assess the toxicological risk from environmental pollutants in order to protect the health of populations in contaminated environments, to participate in impact assessment studies, to manage critical environmental issues and to communicate with professionals and people about toxicological risk in the most effective way.

Overview of background in anatomy, physiology and biochemistry. Overview of general concepts in Toxicology: absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination of toxic substances (2 hours).
Methods of evaluation of the toxic action: acute toxicity, chronic toxicity, genotoxicity. Dose-effect and dose-response relationship. Receptor and non-receptor mediated mechanisms of action. Definition of NOEL, NOAEL, LOEL, LOAEL, DL50 (4 hours).
Methods for toxicity assessment: in vitro, in vivo and in silico (2 hours). Risk assessment and derivation of occupational and environmental (health-related) limit values (2 hours).
Toxicology of Industrial Processes:
- Metals (e.g. Lead, Mercury, Chromium etc.) (2 hours);
- Gas (e.g. Sarin, CO, etc.) (2 hours);
- Solvents (e.g. Hexane, Toluene, Benzene etc.) (2 hours);
- Plant protection products (organophosphorus etc.) (2 hours)
Environmental and occupational diseases (6 hours).
Environmental impact: regulatory context (SIA-VIA, VAS and VIS) (2 hours).
Impacts on soil, water and air of human activities and resulting impact on human health via the different routes of exposure (4 hours).
Evaluation of population exposure. Total Exposure Assessment (air in life and work environments, water, food) (2 hours).
IPPC and AIA. Italian regulation (2 hours).
REACH: Chemical Safety Assessment, Chemical Safety Report, Exposure Scenario, DNEL and DMEL; GLP and GHS (6 hours).
Case studies of:
- substances in the candidate list or subject to restriction (2 hours)
- industrial processes with high environmental impact and subject to Environmental Impact Assessment and related corrective actions (petrochemical, iron and steel industry, industrial accidents, waste-to-energy plants) (6 hours).
Integrated environmental management and environmental certification systems (2 hours).
Environmental risk management, corrective and mitigation actions, environmental policies, environmental communication and information (2 hours).

- Klaasen C. "Casarett and Doull's Toxicology: The Basic Science of Poisons" McGraw-Hill Education Eds; 8th edition; ISBN-10: 0071769234; ISBN-13: 978-0071769235
- Paustenbach J. "The risk assessment of environmental and human health hazards: a textbook of case studies", A. Wiley-Interscience Publication, J. Wiley & Sons
Lesson slides will be also provided to the students (e-learning environment).

Lessons will be offered by videoconference (the teacher will be alternatively in the classrooms of Como and Varese).

Reception by appointment by e-mail. The office is located at the first floor of the “Cube” building. Dep. of Science and High Technology, Via Valleggio 11, Como.