There are no pre-requisites for this integrated course.
The understanding of the biochemistry module and the general pharmacology module require basic knowledge of general chemistry (interaction between atoms and molecules, solubility, chemical equilibrium, acid-base theory and oxidization, thermodynamics) and organ physiology (in particular renal function, digestive system, cardiovascular function).
The integrated course aims to provide basic knowledge to understand biological phenomena at the cellular and tissue levels and to understand the interaction between organism and drugs under normal and pathological conditions and the possible therapeutic implications.
Students will be provided with the following knowledge and skills:
Biochemistry module: knowledge of the main classes of biomolecules (structure and function) and their metabolism in physiological and pathological conditions. The concept of regulation of metabolic activities will also be transmitted, with particular reference to the role of the main hormones. The ability to interpret and evaluate the main biochemical indicators and nutritional properties of the major food classes will also be transmitted.
Pharmacology Module: Knowledge of the general principles underlying interaction between human body and drugs and their mechanism of action. In particular, knowledge will be provided on setting correct dosage and evaluating the risk associated with the use of drugs in relation to various factors (route of administration, adverse effects, drug intolerance, pharmacological interactions). In addition, as a result of pharmacological and toxicological knowledge, the ability to manage, preserve and use medicines in a hospital will be transmitted. Knowledge will also be given about the main legislative provisions regarding drug production and use and the preclinical and clinical study of new medicines.
Module of Biochimistry
Organic constituents of the organism (sugars, proteins, lipids): main functions (10 hours). We will discuss the structure and function of sugars, amino acids, lipids, cholesterol, and energy molecules. Reserve molecules, glycogen and triglycerides. Structure of lipids; micelles, double lipid layers, biological membranes and structural cholesterol properties. Proteins: peptide binding, amino acid sequence, three-dimensional structure (eg collagen), post-translational modifications, phosphorylation, glycosylation, proteolytic cleavage (coagulation examples and digestive enzymes), coenzyme bonds. Oxygen transporters. Hemoglobin and Mioglobin. Enzymes: properties, kinetics, inhibitions, regulation, specificity, nomenclature, and enzyme cofactors. Vitamins. Nutrition biochemistry will be provided throughout the course.
Metabolism of the main biomolecules (10 hours). The concept of anabolism and catabolism will be discussed. Bioenergetics . ATP, substrate phosphorylation at NAD + / FAD substrate, reducing power. Respiratory chain. Glycolysis, glycogen metabolism and the effect of insulin and glucagon. Krebs cycle, gluconeogenesis and their regulation. Nitrogen metabolism, transamination, urea cycle and uric acid. Fatty metabolism and metabolic adaptations in fasting. Heme and albumin catabolism. Lipoproteins, bile acids, and cholesterol metabolism.
Hormones: their metabolic roles (4 hours). The main hormones with metabolic effects and in particular insulin, glucagon, adrenaline, cortisol (glucose homeostasys), thyroid hormone, calcium regulation (vitamin D), steroid hormones (mineralcorticoids, glucocorticoids, sexual hormones) will be presented. Surface or intracellular hormonal receptor, second messengers (AMP cyclic, calcium, inositol triphosphate). Mediators such as prostaglandins, leucotrienes and thromboxanes will be made throughout the course.
Module of Biochimistry
- Pharmacokinetic properties (6 hours). The main routes of drug administration will be described, and the pharmacokinetic processes of absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination of drugs in healthy subjects and in patients. Also, some quantitative pharmacokinetic arguments will be used to set a proper dose, such as distribution volume, clearance, half-life, maintenance dose, loading dose. The concept of bioavailability and the equivalent drug will be addressed.
Pharmacodynamic properties (6 hours): the main mechanisms underlying drug action will be described. It will also discuss the theoretical basis for the interpretation of drug action by imparting the concepts of agonist, antagonist, partial agonist. Dosage-response curves will be described to allow interpretation of efficacy and pharmacological potency. Drug-toxicology topics will be addressed to interpret toxic drug effects, drug interactions, abuse, tolerance, and dependence.
-Examples of pharmaceutical legislation, experimentation (4 hours). The main laws in force in Italy and the European Union concerning the production, classification of medicines, prescription and pharmacovigilance will be described. Preclinical and clinical studies will also be described for the discovery of new drugs.
Chimica e Biochimica
(simple text, without too many formulas and with a part related to the main human pathologies).
Le basi della biochimica
(more captivating but more complex text than the previous one. It requires more chemical knowledge for a correct understanding of the arguments, very good part about the major human pathologies)
Farmacologia generale e clinica. Katzung B.G. Piccin Ed IX edizione italiana sulla XII edizione di lingua inglese
Farmacologia. Rang, Dale, Ritter, Flower, Henderson. Elsevier Ed. VII edizione italiana