Degree course: 
Corso di Long single cycle degree (6 years) in MEDICINE AND SURGERY
Academic year when starting the degree: 
Academic year in which the course will be held: 
Course type: 
Compulsory subjects, characteristic of the class
Second semester
Standard lectures hours: 
Detail of lecture’s hours: 
Lesson (40 hours), Laboratory (20 hours)

Basic microbiology knowledge

Written test; three open questions about as much program topics.
For students who have already made the partial Microbiology I exam the questions will concern only the Microbiology II program, for others the exam will concern the whole program.
The acquisition of microbiology knowledge and the degree of depth of the same will be  evaluated account. The ability to recognize the medical importance of acquired notions and the ability to move across different topics will be evaluated too

Voto Finale

Acquire knowledge on the biology of the main bacteria, viruses, fungi and protozoa.

Acquire knowledge on their diffusion in nature (epidemiology), on the pathogenic mechanisms, diagnosis, prevention and treatment.

Acquire the medical terminology of infectious diseases, provide examples of the logical processes necessary to investigate the aetiology, pathogenesis, prevention and treatment of infections.

1. Specific notions on microorganisms that cause important infections in humans;

2. Etiological and pathogenetic role of some microorganisms in degenerative and neoplastic pathology;

3. Ecology of pathogenic microorganisms and relations with the epidemiology of the main infections;

4. Biological bases of laboratory tests used for the diagnosis of the main infectious diseases;

5. Biological bases of chemotherapy and infection prophylaxis.

1. Normal microbiota
2. Bacteriology: Corinebacteria; Streptococci; Staphylococci;
Neisserie; gastrointestinal bacteria of medical importance; Brucelle; Bordetella and Haemophilus; Spore-forming aerobic and anaerobic bacilli; the genus Clostridium; Mycobacteria; rickettsias and chlamydiae; Mycoplasmas
3. Superficial mycoses and systemic mycoses.
4. Virology: Picornavirus;
Influenza viruses; Paramyxovirus; Rubella virus; Rotavirus and other viral gastroenteritis agents;
Herpes viruses;Poxvirus; Hepatitis viruses; Oncogenic viruses;

1. Normal microbiota
2. Corinebacteria: generality; C. diphteriae and other corinebacteria.
3. Streptococci: Generality, classification. Toxins and enzymes produced.Disorders. Laboratory diagnosis.
4. Staphylococci: generalities and classification. Toxins and enzymes. Drug resistance. Surface antigens. Disorders. Laboratory diagnosis.
5. Neisserie: generalities and classification. Antigens and adhesion structures. Pathogenesis. Epidemic meningitis and gonorrhea.
6. Gastrointestinal bacteria of medical importance:
Enterobacteria: general features, antigenic structure, classification. Salmonella and Shigella infections. E. coli.
Vibrions: generality and taxonomic classification of Vibrio cholerae. Pathogenesis of cholera and mechanism of action of cholera toxin.
The genus Campylobacter: physiology and general characteristics. Epidemiology, pathogenesis, caused pathological forms
Helicobacter pylori: physiology and general characteristics.
7. Brucelle: Generalities and classification. Pathogenesis. Epidemiology and prevention.
8. Bordetella and Haemophilus: Generalities. Exotoxins of Bordetella pertussis. Antigenic structure. Vaccination. Pathological forms caused by Haemophilus influenzae.
9. Spore-forming aerobic bacilli: The genus Bacillus. B. anthracis. B. cereus.
10. Spore-forming anaerobic bacilli: the genus Clostridium. Main species and classification. Mechanism of action of tetanus and botulinum toxins. Pathogenesis of tetanus, botulism, gas gangrene.
11. Mycobacteria and tuberculosis infection: General properties, cultivation and classification. Immunity to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Pathogenesis of tuberculosis infection. Diagnosis, epidemiology, prevention, chemotherapy treatment.
M. leprae and non-tuberculous mycobacteria (also called atypical).
12. Obligatory intracellular parasites: rickettsias and chlamydiae.
13. Mycoplasmas: Generalities. Pulmonary and genitourinary tract infection.
14. Superficial mycoses and systemic mycoses.
15. Picornavirus: General characteristics. Pathogenesis of poliomyelitis and Coxsackie virus infections. Polio vaccines: attenuated and inactivated vaccines.
16. Influenza viruses: generalities, genome structure, antigens and antigenic variability. Pathogenesis and complications of infection. Transmission routes; vaccination prevention and control. Laboratory diagnosis.
17. Paramyxovirus: generalities. Mumps virus, measles virus, respiratory syncytial virus 20. Rabic virus: general characteristics, antigens and host spectrum
18. Rubella virus (Togavirus): Generality. Pathogenesis of infection Transmission to the fetus. Congenital infection
19. Rotavirus and other viral gastroenteritis agents
20. Herpes viruses: General properties, genome organization, replication. Classification. Persistence of the viral genome and reactivation. Pathological forms caused by different herpes viruses.
21. Poxvirus: outline of the smallpox virus and its eradication
22. Hepatitis viruses: generalities, classification and pathologies produced. Chronic forms of hepatitis and risk of liver tumors. Serological and molecular diagnosis of viral hepatitis.
23. Oncogenic DNA viruses: Papillomavirus: condylomas and papillomas. Tumors induced by herpes viruses
24. Retrovirus: Structure and organization of the genome. Antigens and replication cycle. Reverse transcriptase. Genetic classification and variability. HIV and cell tropism. Pathogenesis of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Epidemiology and transmission pathways. Serological and molecular diagnostics.

Antonelli - Clementi - Pozzi - Rossolini
Principi di microbiologia medica
Casa Editrice Ambrosiana

Microbiologia medica
Patrick R. Murray, Michael A. Pfaller, Ken S. Rosenthal
Edra editore

Frontal lessons; slides available to the student on e learing platform. On the same platform, in-depth tools are provided to the student (scientific articles and material from dedicated websites)

Availability to meet students by appointment
e mail: andreina.baj@uninsubria.it