Degree course: 
Corso di First cycle degree in Physiotherapy
Academic year when starting the degree: 
Academic year in which the course will be held: 
Second semester
Standard lectures hours: 

Discipline of General Pathology
Basic knowledge of Biology
Disciplines of Human Physiology and Characterising Physiology
Students, to be able to take the exams relating to Human Physiology and Characterising Physiology modules, must have passed the examinations of the modules of Human Anatomy and Biochemistry of their related CI
Discipline of Microbiology
Basic knowledge of biology

Final Examination: 

Each module will have its own written exam. The final mark will be the mean of the four marks obtained in each exam. The positive vote obtained in each exam relevant to each module will be carried on for the 6 sessions of the same academic year

Voto Finale

Objectives and expected learning outcomes
Discipline of General Pathology
Students will learn the basic notions of cellular and molecular pathology, and the pathologic processes at the basis of multicellular degeneration, inflammation and tumor development. The course will focus also on the innate and adaptive immunity. Special emphasis will be given to acute and chronic inflammation and to related diseases, to the pathogenesis of AIDS and to the neoplastic process.
Discipline of Human Physiology and Characterising Physiology
Students, at the end of the course, will have acquired basic knowledge of the functioning of organs and systems that will enable them to be able to develop a critical reasoning on the operation of the various organ systems individually and will reach an overview on how the various systems work together to maintain general homeostasis of the organism and in the management of the voluntary and reflex bheaviour.
Discipline of Microbiology
Basic aspects of infectious diseases

Content and course program
Discipline of General Pathology
Etiology, pathogenesis, morphological and functional modifications
cellular adaptation: atrophy, hypertrophy, hypoplasia, hyperplasia, metaplasia
cell damage, necrosis, apoptosis
Acute and chronic inflammation
diseases related to inflammation: an unusual type I-II-III-IV; notes on the organ-specific autoimmune diseases and systemic
innate and acquired immune response (humoral and cell-mediated)
lymphoid organs
Major Histocompatibility Complex: polymorphism, function and role in transplant rejection, examples of congenital immunodeficiencies
HIV infection: receptors, co-receptors and cellular targets
immunologic abnormalities during HIV infection and clinical course
Classification of tumors
carcinogenesis physical, chemical and viral oncogenes
Oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes
Definition and epidemiological evidence of carcinogenesis multiphasic
The metastatic process
Discipline of Human Physiology
Constituents, functions, coagulation

Circulatory system:
Static of the circle. Mechanics of the vessels. Bernoulli's law. Dynamic of the club. Poiseuille wave pulse wave law. minimum pressure, maximum, average :. Exchanges of fluid and solutes Formation of lymph.

Autoritmicità. Electrocardiogram. Jetty mechanical heart. Work.

Respiratory system:
static lung volumes. lung and alveolar ventilation. Static. Dynamic. Work. gas trade. respiratory quotient. alveolar-capillary diffusion of gases Transport of O2 in the blood. CO2 transport in blood. ventilation-perfusion mismatch.

excretory system:
Filtration. Autoregulation. proximal convoluted tubule. Loop of Henle. distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct. Optional absorption of water and solutes. hormonal control.

Acid-base balance:
body buffer systems. Acidosis and alkalosis. Compensation

Sarcomere contraction isometric, isotonic and isovelocità. single shock, clonus, tetanus.

Nervous system:
Resting membrane potential. Constant of time and space Action potential and its propagation. Synapse. Synaptic integration and plasticity. Post-synaptic receptors. Neuromuscular Junction. Neuronal coding. Sensory systems. Special senses. Reflexes. brain regions
Discipline of Characterising Physiology
Brain: Functional Division into areas
postcentral gyrus
primary motor area
associative areas - Wernicke - Broca

Basal ganglia
brainstem: positioning control eyes
Bulb (outline): visceral control
spinal reflexes
the gaze control
postural control
PPT, facilitation, LTP (memory mechanisms)
Embryogenesis, development and maturation of the CNS
voluntary movement
Plasticity of the CNS
Cardiac work
Bernoulli's law
Guyton graphics
coronary circulation and muscle
forced spirometry
Discipline of Microbiology
1. Contributions of microbiology to human health
2. Differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
3. Bacteria: structure and replication. Growth of bacterial cultures. Spores.
4. Fungi: structure and reproduction. Classification of pathogenic fungi
5. Virus structure and classification
6. Protozoa: structure and biological cycles. Classification of main pathogen protozoa
7. Host-parasite interaction (infection, differences between infection and disease, immune response against infective agents)
8. Sterilization and disinfection. Antimicrobial drugs. Epidemiology and infection prevention. Vaccines.
9. Skin and cutaneous annexes infections
10. Bone and joint infections
11. Diagnosis of skin, cutaneous annexes, bone and joint infections
12. Therapy and prophylaxis of skin, cutaneous annexes, bone and joint infections

Discipline of General Pathology
1. Elementi di patologia generale per i corsi di laurea in professioni sanitarie
Pontieri (piccin)
2. Patologia generale, rubin l’essenziale
Rubin E. (Piccin)
3. le basi patologiche delle malattie
Robbins (Piccin)
4. introduzione all’immunologia
Actor J.K. (Pearson)
5. come funziona il sistema immunitario
Sompayrac l. (Piccin)
6. immunologia, biologia e patologia del sistema immunitario
Maniero F., Palmieri G., Paolini R. (Piccin)
7. Abbas, Lichtman, Pober, “Immunologia Cellulare e Molecolare” (Elsevier)
Copies of the slides used in class lectures
Disciplines of Human Physiology and Characterising Physiology
AA.VV. Fisiologia dell’Uomo Ed. Edi Ermes
AA.VV. Fisiologia Umana Vol 1 & 2 Ed. Edi Ermes
Berne Levy Fisiologia Ed. CEA
Guyton Fisiologia Medica Ed. CEA
Kandel Principi di Neuroscienze Ed. CEA
Discipline of Microbiology
Eudes Lanciotti - Principi di Microbiologia clinica – Casa Ed Ambrosiana, 2007
Assessment methods
The examination for each discipline will be done in written form. The final vote of the CI will match the average of marks obtained in each discipline, once all four exames of the single disciplines will be successfully passed.

Class Lectures for all didactic modules