HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY 2
- Assessment methods
- Learning objectives
- Teaching methods
A single final exam of Human Physiology will verify the acquired knowledge of the students on the programs of Human Physiology 1 and Human Physiology 2.
The final exam is based on the syllabi of the courses of Human Physiology 1 and Human Physiology 2. The final exam consists of a written exam made of 40 multiple choice questions to be addressed through PCs available at the University classrooms. The exam will be considered passed for a score greater than 18/30.
Course objective and learning target
The objective of the Course of Human Physiology 2 is to provide to the students all information needed to understand, from the biophysical and quantitative standpoint, the mechanisms of functioning of body organs and systems and their control performed by the central and autonomic nervous system and by the endocrine system.
Skeletal muscle. Isometric, isotonic and iso-velocity contraction. Single twitch and tetanisation. Force-length diagram. Force-velocity diagram. Dynamic force-velocity diagram. Muscular fatigue.
Cardiovascular system. Distribution of blood volume. Velocity, cross section and pressure in the circulatory districts. Mechanical features of blood vessels. Laplace law. Bernoully law. Poiseuille law. Laminar and turbulent flow. Cardiac pace-maker. Specialized excitatory ad conductive system of the heart. Resting membrane potential and action potential in miocytes. ECG. Control of cardiac function. Cardiac mechanics. Valves function. Ventricular pressure and volume during cardiac cycle. Cardiac stroke and cardiac output. Cardiac metabolism. Arterial pulse pressure. Pressure distribution in the systemic and pulmonary circulation. Pulse pressure velocity and transit time. Fluid and solute exchanges between microvasculature and interstitial space. Lymph formation and propulsion. Oedema. Nervous and endocrine control of arterial pressure. Pulmonary circulation.
Respiratory system. Air gas composition and pressure. Spirometry, static lung volumes. Pulmonary and alveolar volume and flow. Respiratory mechanics . Lung, chest and respiratory system pressure-volume curves. Mechanical work of respiration. Respiratory gas exchanges. O2 consumption and CO2. production. Respiratory ratio. Alveolar gas equation. Alveolo-capillary respiratory gas diffusion. O2 and CO2 transport in blood and tissues. Hypoxia. Nervous and chemical control of respiratory function.
Excretory system. Glomerular filtration. Renal blood flow and filtration fraction. Glomerular auto regulation. Renal clearance. Proximal tubule Absorption of water, Na+, Cl-, bicarbonates, aminoacids, urea. Secretion of H+ and organic substances. Henle loop. Counter current mechanism. Osmolarity in tubular and extracellular fluid. Vasa recta. Distal convolute and collecting tubules. Aldosterone and vasopressine. Regulation of volume and osmoticity of extracellular body fluids. Urine volume, pH and composition.
Acid-base equilibrium. Physiological buffer solutions. H+ production and its buffering. Respiratory and metabolic acidosis and alkalosis. Control of pH by renal and respiratory correction.
Metabolism. Energetic fuel: anaerobic and aerobic pathways. Energy available in food. Oxygen debt. Basal, rest ad exercise metabolism. O2 consumption.
Thermoregulation. Thermal equilibrium. Physiological mechanisms of heat production and dispersion. Nervous and endocrine control of heat production and dispersion.
Digestive system. General features of the digestive tube. Peristaltic movements. Salivary, gastric, pancreatic, hepatic and entheric secretions and their control. Digestion and absorption of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, ions, vitamins, drugs and water.
Endocrine system. Mechanisms of hormone release and action. Pituitary gland and its hormons. Adrenal glands. Medulla: catecholamines. Cortical: glucocorticoids, mineralcorticoids, their function and regulation. Thyroid Function and secretion of thyroid hormones. Paratyroids. Metabolisms and function of calcium and fosphate ions. Vitamin D. Endocrine pancreas. Effect of insulin and glucagone on glucose metabolism.
AA.VV. – FISIOLOGIA UMANA – a cura di F.Grassi, D.Negrini, C.A. Porro - Poletto Editore, Milano
Silverthon - FISIOLOGIA UMANA - Pearson Editore, Milano.