Degree course: 
Corso di First cycle degree in BIOTECHNOLOGY
Academic year when starting the degree: 
Academic year in which the course will be held: 
Course type: 
Supplementary compulsory subjects
Second semester
Standard lectures hours: 
Detail of lecture’s hours: 
Lesson (44 hours), Laboratory (8 hours)

Although not mandatory, a good knowledge of plant biology and organic chemistry is strongly advised.

Final Examination: 

The student will be asked to demonstrate a thorough comprehension regarding the constitutive topics covered in all five training objectives. Students will perform three intermediate tests and a final exam. Two intermediate tests consist of multiple-choice test, corresponding tests and written text on the topics of training objectives 1 and 2 the first, 3 and 4 the second, respectively. A third practical test concerns identi-fication of a species (training objective 5). The final score is the mean of the three evaluative steps. The fi-nal exam consists of a general comment on the tests performed.
The evaluation process weighs, in addition to the ability to learn, understand ability and communicate skills.

Voto Finale

The present course is in the second year, contributing to a training program on Botany for biotechnolo-gies, which starts from plant biology and ends with plant biotechnology. It is in line with the traditional course of Pharmaceutical Botany, updated in both the systematic background according to the recent ad-vances from the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group panel, and the most important plant-based pharmaceutical forms. Factors affecting the production of active compounds by the plant are analysed in details. Links among Pharmacognosy, Organic Chemistry, Botany, Systematic Botany and Biology are elucidated as well.
The following learning results are expected:
1. to acquire the basic knowledge on the main metabolic pathways of secondary metabolites in plant cell.
2. to acquire the basic and advanced knowledge on the chemical structure of the macro-categories of sec-ondary metabolites.
3. to acquire the basic knowledge on the main plant secondary metabolites with pharmacological applica-tions.
4. to understand the environmental factors affecting the secondary metabolites production
5. Phytotherapy
5. to acquire the basic knowledge on Systematic Botany
Moreover, students have to show inclination towards a professional approach to their work.

Lectures (5.5 cfu, 44 hours)
The secondary metabolism in plants (14h, training objective 1 e 2)
• Recall of plant morphology and physiology: secretory tissues
• Secondary metabolism and the main biosynthetic pathways of secondary metabolites
• Chemical structure of the macro-categories of secondary metabolites:
- Phenolic compounds (Flavonoids, Tannins, Lignins, Lignans, Coumarins, Chinons, Cannabinoids)
- Terpenoids (essential oils, Steroids, Iridoids, Saponines, Resines, Rubbers, cardiac glycosides)
- Nitrogen compounds (Alcaloids, Glucosinolates, non-proteic aminoacids, cianogenic glycosides)

Bioactive plant secondary metabolites of pharmacological interest (8h, training objective 3)
Location of the secretory tissues and related extractive methods

Environmental factors (6h, training objective 4)
Endogenous and exogenous factors affecting bioactive compounds production

Phytotherapy (6h, training objective 5)
notes on extractive methods and type of products of phytotherapy

Systematic Botany: definition and aims. Classification criteria. Taxonomy (6h, training objective 6)
- Algae
- Fungi
- Bryophytes
- Pteridophytes
- Gymnosperms
- Angiosperms

Laboratory (0,5 cfu, 8h)
Extraction method of:
- a phenolic compound from clove (Syzygium aromaticum): eugenol
- essentials from Salvia officinalis and Melissa officinalis
- limonene from rind fruit of Rutaceae and GC-MS analysis

Analytical guides for species identification and classification

Slides of the lessons: downloading from the Elearning platform or provided by the lecturer.
Papers, monographs: downloading from the Elearning platform

Badal McCreath SB and Delgoda R. Pharmacognosy, Fundamentals, Applications and Strategies. Academic Press, Ed 2017


The course consists of lectures (5,5 CFU) and laboratory (0,5 CFU).
The course consists of of 44h of frontal lessons and 8h of laboratory activities, totaling 52 h (6 CFU). The addressed topics will be integrated by presentation of picture slides, graphics, diagrams and videos useful to clarify the concepts.
For laboratory activities, students are divided in small groups and are assigned a location for the self-conduct experiment. The access to the rooms is allowed only if equipped with white coat. The presence of the lecturer and one or more assistants will be guaranteed. Lab attendance is mandatory, and absence should not exceed 25% (2h) of the laboratory planned program.

Meetings preferably by appointment (by email request). Lecturer answers emails only if signed and with domain.
Lecturer is available for meeting aimed at clarifying and analyzing the treated topics, preferably for groups of students