Degree course: 
Corso di First cycle degree in BIOTECHNOLOGY
Academic year when starting the degree: 
Academic year in which the course will be held: 
Course type: 
Compulsory subjects, characteristic of the class
First Semester
Standard lectures hours: 
Detail of lecture’s hours: 
Lesson (72 hours)

The course will require mathematical, physical, chemistry basis. Knowledge of Animal Biology and Cell biology is also required.

Final Examination: 

The examination is the oral exposition about all parts of the course.
Students are required to prepare a conceptual map to help the oral presentation.
The final score is given in 30ies: the examination is successful if a score ≥ 18/30

Voto Finale


The course will provide the physiological basis for understanding the lives of animals at every level of organization: molecular, cellular, whole organism. The course will be focused on cell physiology and its molecular structure, starting from membrane and membrane proteins. The cell function will be analyzed in their complex organization in tissues, organs and systems
Training goals
The learning aim will be
-Acquisition of the knowledge of the physiological process and the functional feedback at the different levels, from the molecular to the whole organism
The use of the correct scientific and physiological language
Understanding the importance of the different aspect of physiology in different disciplines, particularly in biotechnology.
The capability of interpretation of the functional graphical physiological plot
The ability to understand and explain the animal function by graphical representation, simulation or multimedia approach.
Understanding the structure-function relationships

Knowledge and understanding (Knowledge and know)
Acquisition of mindful independent knowledge and of the correct scientific and physiological language that shows the study on advanced textbooks and the use of multimedia tools (video, simulations etc.) and knowledge of some cutting-edge issues in the specific field of study

Applying knowledge and understanding (Skills and know how)
Understanding the importance of the different aspect of physiology in different disciplines. The capability of interpretation of the functional graphical physiological plot.
The ability to understand and explain the animal function by graphical representation, simulation or the multimedia approach.

Introduction- Homeostasis Feedback (negative and positive) internal and external environment- permeability and membrane transports
Membranes structure and regulation, compositions, membrane protein, membrane organization. Diffusion, membrane flux, active transport and facilitated diffusion, epithelial transport. Electric property of the membrane, Nerst and Goldman Equation, Donnan Equilibrium, Resting and action potential, Voltage clamp, ion channels Patch clamp and single channel recordings.
Signal transduction, Signal propagation Synapse, Synaptic Receptor and channel, Synaptic plasticity, LTP and LTD
Messenger and regulatory protein, Membrane signal transduction, metabotropic receptor, G protein, Calcium and cAMP
Muscle and Movements, Sarcomere structure, sliding filament theory, regulation of contraction, Role of Calcium, Mechanisms of muscle contraction, Cardiac muscle and smooth muscle.
Nervous systems evolution, Central nervous systems and central control, peripheral nervous system, the autonomic nervous system, sympathetic nervous system, the parasympathetic nervous system and the enteric nervous system.
Homeostasis, Endocrine System, the physiological effect of hormones, Control of Nutrition, water and saline balance, metabolic and developmental hormones, reproductive hormones, Circadian rhythms and biological clocks
Circulation and the heart, general plan of the circulatory system, the Mechanical property of the heart, Electric activity and coronary circulation, Hemodynamics, the peripheral circulation, the lymphatic system, capillary, control of the central cardiovascular system
Gas Exchange, oxide and carbon dioxide in the blood, respiratory pigments, lung in vertebrates.
Ionic and osmotic balance, the balance of water and salt, osmoregulation organs, vertebrate kidney, Henle loop, excretion of nitrogenous wastes.
Feeding digestion adsorption, alimentary system, nutrients, alimentary canal, motility, structure, gastrointestinal secretion, absorption.
Metabolism and temperature relations, the energy of locomotion and environmental influence.

"Human Physiology: An Integrated Approach, 7th Edition
Dee Unglaub Silverthorn, University of Texas, Austin Pearson
«Fisiologia» E. D’Angelo & A Peres, Edi-Ermes Milano 2011

«Fisiologia umana» Un approccio integrato • 7/Ed. • Con Mastering A&PDee Unglaub Silverthorn- Pearson 2017
Fisiologia e Biofisica delle cellule V. Taglietti - C. Casella Edises
«Fisiologia animale» Richard Hill, Gordon Wyse, Margaret Anderson Zanichelli 2006
«Fisiologia degli animali Dai geni agli organismi» Lauralee Sherwood, Hillary Klandorf, Paul Yancey Zanichelli 2006

Didactic material, slide and video in e-elarning site


72 hours lectures, the topics in the classroom is carried out with the help of projected presentations, supplemented by the projection of educational films, in many cases in English. Students activities are proposed aimed at understanding the topics covered and for exam preparation. Some work will be done in the classroom with the active participation of students for the formulating basic concept maps for the oral exam