Degree course: 
Corso di First cycle degree in BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES
Academic year when starting the degree: 
Academic year in which the course will be held: 
Course type: 
Supplementary compulsory subjects
First Semester
Standard lectures hours: 
Detail of lecture’s hours: 
Lesson (48 hours)

In order to fruitfully attend the course and to successfully pass the exams, students must be proficient in inorganic and organic chemistry, biochemistry, physiology, and human or compared anatomy.

Final Examination: 

An examination, whose total load is 6 credits, will be required as a test of learning of the subjects covered throughout the course.
Assessment will be based on one written final exam based on 2 or 3 open questions, with attribution of a final mark (in fractions of 30).
In order to pass the final test is necessary for students to respond adequately to the exam questions, proving to be able to deal in a comprehensive way the assigned topic, and to understand the issues raised in all their aspects (theoretical and applied). Students are also required to show knowledge of the basics of chemical, biochemical, physiological and genetic mechanisms of toxicity, learned during the course.
If the examination includes 3 questions, for passing the test will be necessary that the student has answered two questions in a correct and comprehensive manner.
If the examination includes 2 questions, for passing the test will be necessary that the student has responded comprehensively to both.

Voto Finale

Goals: Students will be enabled to master the major concepts of toxicokinetics/pharmacokinetics and toxicodynamics, and the basic topics of biochemical toxicology and molecular toxicology. A section of the course will also illustrate several important classes of toxic compounds and their mechanisms of action at the organ, tissue, cellular and molecular levels. At the end of the course students will be able to personally study various topics in the field of toxicology, by applying methods learned in class, and by investigating new types of drugs or toxicants.

-Toxicokinetics and pharmacokinetics: administration routes, adsorption, distribution, biotransformation and excretion of toxins and drugs
-Toxins active on major biochemical pathways in the cell: glycolysis, Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, Krebs cycle, electron transfer chain: arsenic, cyanide, fluoroacetic acid
-Basic information on the genetic determinants of the response to toxins.
-Chemical structure, metabolic bioactivation mechanism of action and molecular/cellular/systemic effects of:
1-Chlorynated & persistent pesticides
2-Dioxins, Furans, Polychlorinated biphenyls
3-Organic solvents: benzene
4-Radioactive compounds, ionizing radiation, radiation toxicity
5-Drugs: Salycilates, Aminoglycosides, Cyclophosphamyde, Paracetamol, etc.
6-Cholinesterase inhibitors - Organophospates
7-Chemical carcinogens: nitrosamines, nitroso-compounds, aromatic amines, etc.

Textbook: Casarett and Doull’s Toxicology, 8th edition ISBN13: 978-0071769235
ISBN10: 0071769234; Publisher: McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Published: 2013

Students will be provided with the scientific articles explained and commented during lectures, as well as with the presentations and videos shown during classroom activities.


The course is based on classroom lessons. Powerpoint presentations and videos will be shown during each lesson. The lessons are interactive, and based on mutual question/answer exchanges between teacher and students.