Degree course: 
Corso di First cycle degree in BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES
Academic year when starting the degree: 
Academic year in which the course will be held: 
Course type: 
Supplementary compulsory subjects
Second semester
Standard lectures hours: 
Detail of lecture’s hours: 
Lesson (44 hours), Laboratory (8 hours)

In order to attend fruitfully the Class, the student should be in possession of the basic notions in cytology and histology. For this class no required prerequisite is prescribed.

Final Examination: 

The final exam consists of an oral test, three of four exam questions aimed at verifying the preparation and presentation skills of students. The final grade is evaluated by the mean of grades obtained at individual exam questions

Voto Finale

Currently the basic concept of immunology are mandatory for the training of the biologist aiming at studying Biomedicine. The principal aim of the course of Basics and Techniques of Immunology is to provide the student with fundamental notions in Immunology starting from basic knowledge of cellular and molecular biology. Moreover a part of the Class is aimed at explaining the principal experimental approaches in use in immunology; indeed the learning of experimental methods is further supported by laboratory training included in the 6 CFU. At the end of the course, the student will be able to understand basic principles of acquired immunity and the role of the main lymphocyte subsets in immune responses. This knowledge is pivotal to gain access to modern Immunopathology. Moreover students will be able to evaluate experimental data obtained in the laboratory training.

Introduction (2 lessons, 05 CFU)
-leucocytes, immunophenotype, CD classification
-apoptosis and necrosis
-innate and acquired responses, immunological memory

Immunoglobulins, structure and functions (4 lessons, 1 CFU)
-Antibody basic structure
-enzymatic digestions, Fab e Fc
-affinity and avidity
-clonal selection theory
-effector functions of the five Ig classes
a) neutralization of toxins, viruses and bacteria
c)activation of complement classical pathway
d)crossing of the placental barrier
e)transport through epithelial barriers in mucosae and secretion
f)expression on mature B cells (cell surface BCR)
g)induction of mastcell degranulation and histamine release
h)antibody Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity ADCC

immunological techniques, monoclonal antibodies (2 lessons, 05 CFU )
-hapten and carrier
-use of adjuvant in immunization
-hybridoma selection in HAT medium, Milstein method
-screening of monoclonal antibodies, ELISA etc
-antibodies as a biotechnological tool. Leukocyte markers and cluster differentiation, immune-phenotype.

MHC, TCR and NK cell (4 lessons, 1 CFU)
- the function of MHC-I e MHC-II molecules, tissue distribution
-gene organization of MHC-I and MHC-II, polymorphism, the concepts of aplotype
-the structure of MHC-I e MHC-II molecules, peptide binding, anchor residue
-biological meaning of MHC polymorphism
-clinical implications of MHC polymorphism, trasplantation
-TCR, similarities and differences with Ig
-the concept of antigen, B and T epitopes
-antigen processing and presentation
- escape from antigen presentation by herpetic virus
- NK cells, inhibitory and activatory receptors

Cytokine network (4 lessons, 1 CFU)
-cytokine, general issues
-functions of the principal cytokines involved in acquired responses: IL2, IL4, IL-10, IL12, IFNg
-TH1/TH2 polarization
-experimental analysis of TH1 e TH2 polarization: ELISA and intra-cytoplasmatic immunofluorescence
-protective immune responses: intracellular versus extracellular pathogens and TH1/TH2- mycobacterium tuberculosisor or leprae (TH1), helminths (TH2)
-other TH subsets, TH17 and regulatory T cells, an outline

Innate response and inflammation (3 lessons, 075 CFU)
-general concepts on innate immunity and inflammation
-barriers in innate responses. Anti-microbial peptides, iron availability for bacterial growth.
-three pathways for camplement activation
- innate receptors of innate immunity, pattern recognition PAMP e PRR.
-MBP and other soluble PRR akin to ancestral antibodies
-TLR and NOD, cell expression, ligands, signal transduction, NF-kB activation

Secondary lymphoid organs, lymph nodes and the spleen (2 lessons, 05 CFU)
-chemokine biology, G-proteins coupled receptors
-biology of dendrtitic cells (DC), role of CCR7 chemokine receptor in the homing of mDC in LN
- the pivotal role of co-stimulus (II signal) in the priming phase of acquired immunity
-adjuvants in immunization and vaccinations and co-stimuli
-role of DC in HIV infection, viremia and Th CD4 in the HIV patient
- secondary lymphoid organs, lymph nodes and spleen, blood and lymph circulation

Thymus (central tolerance) and peripheral tolerance (1 lesson, 025 CFU)
-thymus anatomy, involution in the adult
-peripheral tolerance, the pivotal role of the co-stimulus

Laboratory module (0.5 cfu, 8h) one lab lesson:
a) complement-mediated lysis of a cell target opsonized by an antibody recognizing a cell surface antigen, analysis by microscopy b) complement-mediated lysis of E coli opsonized by human serum, analysis of bacterial growth by over-night growth on agar plates, evaluation of bacterial CFU c) effect of complement opsonization on the phagocytosis of FITC labeled bacteria, analysis by flow cytometry

Abbas, Lichtman, Pillai Le basi dell’Immunologia-fisiopatologia del sistema immunitario Edra 5 edizione 2017

Tak Mak, Mary Saunders Fondamenti di Immunologia Zanichelli 2012

Moreover the lesson slides are on the E-learning platform


22 lectures, 44 hours, 5.5 CFU. 1 lab lesson, 8 hours 0.5 CFU.