Degree course: 
Corso di First cycle degree in BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES
Academic year when starting the degree: 
Academic year in which the course will be held: 
Course type: 
Supplementary compulsory subjects
First Semester
Standard lectures hours: 
Detail of lecture’s hours: 
Lesson (40 hours), Laboratory (16 hours)

Teaching does not require preparation. However, it is necessary to know the general preparatory topics dealt with in the teachings of Biology, Biochemistry, Genetics and Physiology. A good knowledge of English is strongly recommended.

Final Examination: 

The final examination will take place through an oral interview of about 30-40 minutes to verify the understanding of the main topics covered and the acquisition of a correct scientific language. The student will be able to prepare a short report on a pathology of his choice that must consider the genetic, biochemical, molecular, physiological and pathological aspects as well as the clinical aspects of the same. A further question will be asked on a general topic of pathophysiology dealt with during lessons.
The vote is in 30th on the basis of the Commission’s assessment of the above.

Voto Finale

The teaching of physiopathology takes place in the third year and aims to provide the basis for the knowledge and understanding of the relationships between physiology, mechanisms of adaptation, pathological and repairing processes. In particular, the course has the following training objectives:

-Understanding the molecular, cellular and systemic modalities and mechanisms that allow the maintenance of the homeostasis of the organism and its recovery or degradation following disorders.

-Understanding and distinction of aetiological factors and pathogenic mechanisms and possible approaches to preventive, symptomatic and “disease modifying” in pathologies.

-Understanding of physiological mechanisms and possible pathological impairment of the nervous, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.

-Ability to identify how an altered genetic mechanism, environmental factor or impairment of cellular function can interfere with normal cellular and systemic functioning resulting in a disease.

-Understanding the functioning of non-invasive electrophysiological survey methodologies (ECG, electromyography).

-Ability to perform simple non-invasive electrophysiological recordings.

-Ability to identify and quantify parameters deriving from major non-invasive electrophysiological records.
-Ability to evaluate and interpret the most relevant aspects of the resulting paths.

-Ability to relate biology, genetics, biochemistry and pathology issues in order to develop multidisciplinary knowledge in the physiological field.

-Ability to acquire a good command of the correct scientific language to allow proper dissemination of information on pathological physiology in the medical/scientific field.

Introduction to pathology (6 hours):
Mechanisms and processes of cellular suffering and recovery, necrosis, apoptosis, UPR (unfolded protein response), proteasome, autophagocytosis;
Physiopathology of inflammatory processes: humoral and cellular aspects specific to neuronal cell suffering.

Neuronal physiopathology (8 hours):
Pathology of the peripheral nervous system;
Pathology of excitability (ionic channels, synaptic function, myelin);
Neuronal physiopathology: the processes of neuronal suffering;
Neuronal physiopathology: the neuroprotective and neurotoxic role of the glia.

Cardiovascular system (10 hours):
Mechanical activity of the heart and its regulation;
Congestive heart failure, compensation mechanisms, heart failure;
Shock, physiopathology, therapeutic interventions;
Peripheral circulation: oxygenation and exchanges, ischemia;
Coronary physiology, cardiac perfusion, angina and infarction;
Cardiac output, pressure, cardiac work, oxygen requirements;
Electrical activity of the heart and its regulation; alterations of electrical activity, pathogenesis of arhythmias;
Physiological aspects and diagnostic indications of the EKG.

Liquid and solute control (8 hours)
The kidney as an elimination system;
The kidney as a homeostatic control system of body fluid composition, volume control of body fluids;
Short-term and long-term control of blood pressure;
pH control of body fluids.

Endocrinology, hormonal physiopathology (8 hours)
The endocrinology of development;
Endocrinology of stress;
Sexual endocrinology;
Hormones and integrated homeostatic controls (blood volume, blood sugar, body temperature).

Drills (room and time to be defined) - recordings and analysis of: (16 hours)
ECG: electrocardiogram and electrocardiogram;
EMG: Electromyogram, please.

“Fisiologia Umana” – Conti F. - EdiErmes
“Patologia Generale e Fisiopatologia” – Celotti F. - EdiSES

The teaching material in support of the main textbook which consists of the slides that are presented to lecture by the teacher, the audiovisual media projected in the classroom and suggested during the lessons, in addition to scientific articles on the topics covered is constantly updated and made available on the e-learning platform.


The didactic activity includes lessons frontal (40 hours). The lectures in the classroom will be given with the help of power point presentations, integrated by the projection of educational films, in many cases in English. Support activities are proposed for the preparation of the oral exam aimed at understanding the subjects covered which involve the active participation of students.
Practical exercises (16 hours) with a multifunctional non-invasive electrophysiological recording system will be carried out.

Office hours: Tuesday 14:00-15:00