GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF PHARMACOLOGY AND MOLECULAR

Degree course: 
Corso di First cycle degree in BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES
Academyc year when starting the degree: 
2017/2018
Year: 
3
Academyc year when helding the course: 
2019/2020
Course type: 
Compulsory subjects, characteristic of the class
Language: 
Italian
Credits: 
6
Period: 
First Semester
Standard lectures hours: 
54
Detail of lecture’s hours: 
Lesson (40 hours), Exercise (6 hours), Laboratory (8 hours)
Requirements: 

Although no prerequisites are required, notions of biochemistry and physiology are essential to follow the course profitably

Final Examination: 
Orale

A written test (essay-based) will be administered at the end of the course. It will be based on 3 questions randomly chosen between all the topics presented during the course. Generally, one question will test the knowledge of aspects of pharmacokinetics, one to verify the knowledge of the quantitative bases of the drug receptor interaction and the methods of study of the receptors and one specifically dedicated to description of the molecular / cellular interaction between drugs and one of the protein targets described in the course. The final grade will be expressed in thirtieths. Students must score at least 18/30 in order to pass the test

Assessment: 
Voto Finale

Students will understand fundamental principles of pharmacology as related to the mechanisms of drug action, biodistribution and metabolism.
On successful completion of the course, students will be able to:
- describe the general principles of pharmacology, indicating the targets for drug action, and the processes by which the body can affect the fate of such agents
- discuss the factors leading to individual variability in drug response altering therapy outcomes and adverse drug events
- describe how pre-clinical and clinical evaluation of new drugs is conducted
Thanks to the practical experiences the student will acquire application skills in preclinical pharmacological methodologies related to the in vitro and in vivo evaluation of the effects of drugs, including the application of computer and statistical methods for the processing and analysis of experimental data, thus integrating multidisciplinary application knowledge. Moreover, students will be able to present concise, analytical, and objective scientific information relating to pharmacology in the form of essays, reports, scientific literature reviews, posters and/or oral presentations.

Lectures (5CFU 40 hours)
Essential lexicon of Pharmacology and a short history of Pharmacology. Research and Development of New Drugs 3 hours
Pharmacokinetics. Drug Absorption and Administration Routes. Drug Distribution. Drug Metabolism and Elimination 10 hours
Drug–Receptor Interactions: Quantitative and Qualitative Aspects. Receptors and Modulation of Their Response. Dose/Response curves. Relationship between drug-receptor interaction and response. 8 hours
Receptor analysis techniques (binding, receptor functionality) 2 hours
Drugs and Receptors. Drugs and ion channel receptors. Drugs and G protein coupled receptors. Drugs and receptors for growth factors. Drugs and intracellular/intranuclear receptors. Mechanisms of receptor regulation. 11 hours
Proteins as drug targets. Drugs and Enzymes. Drugs and Transporters. Drugs and Ion Channels. 6 hours

Practical module (0.5 CFU of tutorial, 6 hours; 0.5 CFU of laboratory, 8 hours)
Three different activities will be set up in which students will be divided into working groups of adequate number to actively participate in the experience.
First activity, tutorial in the computer room: description and analysis of ligand-receptor binding experiments. Specifically, students, using receptor binding data present in the laboratory, will proceed to calculate the Scatchard curve to evaluate the Kd and Bmax parameters through the use of a specific analysis software. 3 hours
Second activity, tutorial in the computer room: students will participate in the simulation of a preclinical study aimed at evaluating the anxiolytic activity of new compounds, including the analysis of the results through the use of a specific analysis software. 3 hours
Third activity, two-day laboratory: application of immunohistochemistry methods to study the effect of a compound acting as a non-competitive antagonist of the NMDA receptor on the expression of "immediate early genes" in specific brain areas. 8 hours

Lectures (5CFU 40 hours)
Essential lexicon of Pharmacology and a short history of Pharmacology. Research and Development of New Drugs 3 hours
Pharmacokinetics. Drug Absorption and Administration Routes. Drug Distribution. Drug Metabolism and Elimination 10 hours
Drug–Receptor Interactions: Quantitative and Qualitative Aspects. Receptors and Modulation of Their Response. Dose/Response curves. Relationship between drug-receptor interaction and response. 8 hours
Receptor analysis techniques (binding, receptor functionality) 2 hours
Drugs and Receptors. Drugs and ion channel receptors. Drugs and G protein coupled receptors. Drugs and receptors for growth factors. Drugs and intracellular/intranuclear receptors. Mechanisms of receptor regulation. 11 hours
Proteins as drug targets. Drugs and Enzymes. Drugs and Transporters. Drugs and Ion Channels. 6 hours

Practical module (0.5 CFU of tutorial, 6 hours; 0.5 CFU of laboratory, 8 hours)
Three different activities will be set up in which students will be divided into working groups of adequate number to actively participate in the experience.
First activity, tutorial in the computer room: description and analysis of ligand-receptor binding experiments. Specifically, students, using receptor binding data present in the laboratory, will proceed to calculate the Scatchard curve to evaluate the Kd and Bmax parameters through the use of a specific analysis software. 3 hours
Second activity, tutorial in the computer room: students will participate in the simulation of a preclinical study aimed at evaluating the anxiolytic activity of new compounds, including the analysis of the results through the use of a specific analysis software. 3 hours
Third activity, two-day laboratory: application of immunohistochemistry methods to study the effect of a compound acting as a non-competitive antagonist of the NMDA receptor on the expression of "immediate early genes" in specific brain areas. 8 hours

F. Clementi e G. Fumagalli “Farmacologia generale e molecolare” V edizione Edra.
Slide presentations used during lectures are available on the e-learning website

Convenzionale

The teaching activity includes lectures (5 CFU) tutorials (0.5 CFU) and laboratory (0.5 CFU).
During the lectures, the treatment of the topics is carried out with the help of power point presentations, which will be made available on the university's e-learning platform.
The Tutorial module will be held in the computer rooms of the Varese premises, while the Laboratory module will be held in the experimental laboratories of the Busto Arsizio site. Students must use a lab coat for lab work, other materials will be provided in the laboratory. Students are reminded that attendance at educational laboratories is mandatory and that absence is allowed only for a number of hours not exceeding 25% of the practical module. Students who have allergies or intolerances to drugs or other molecules that may be present in a research laboratory must inform the teacher before beginning the laboratory teaching module

Meeting by appointment requested by email or before/after class (while teaching module is ongoing)
tiziana.rubino@uninsubria.it

Professors