Degree course: 
Corso di Second cycle degree in PHYSICS
Academic year when starting the degree: 
Academic year in which the course will be held: 
Course type: 
Compulsory subjects, characteristic of the class
Second semester
Standard lectures hours: 
Detail of lecture’s hours: 
Lesson (48 hours)

Fundamentals of mathematical analysis of structure of matter and of electromagnetism should be owned by students.

Final Examination: 

Verification of learning is done through an oral test that will verify the student's preparation for at least one argument for each of the three main themes of the program done (IR, NIR and acoustic).

Voto Finale

The module aims to illustrate the phenomena of natural radioactivity and Dosimetry of ionizing radiation, environmental knowledge, to develop the concept of environmental electromagnetic fields, their origin and measurement, the themes of acoustics and measuring methodologies in field in the environment.
The student must acquire the ability to understand how to act natural and artificial physical agents in the environment, how to carry out measures of their parameters, compare the measured values with the existing rules and describe the effects that result.

1) Ionizing radiation and radioactivity in the environment.
Outlines of the structure of atoms and matter.
Description of corpuscular radiations. Alpha and beta radiations and protons.
Their interaction with matter, bremsstrahlung and ionization.
Description of electromagnetic radiation, x-rays and gamma rays. Their interactions with matter, Compton scattering, photoelectric effect and pair production.
Principles of detection. IR Instrumentation. Gas detectors, Geiger, proportional counters, ionization chambers. Scintillation detectors, organic and inorganic scintillators, solid state detectors. Gamma rays spectrometry instrument and personal dosimetry devices.
Dosimetry and measuring radiation dose, activities, exposure, kerma. Effective dose, absorbed dose. Dose equivalent. Principle of electronic balance.
Biological effects of ionization radiations, deterministic and stochastic effects. Radiation protection, contamination and external irradiation. The three principles of radioprotection.
Natural radioactivity, cosmogenic radionuclides, radioactive chains, decays, transitional and secular equilibrium.
Radon. Origin, properties and measurement methodologies.
Sanitary, civil and industrial radioactive sources and radiogenic machines.
National regulations of natural radioactivity and radiation protection.
The physical surveillance of radiation protection, the task of the qualified expert.
Radioactive waste, characteristics, classification and their management.

2) Non-ionizing radiation: electromagnetic fields in the environment.
The high frequency electromagnetic fields: reactive field, radiative field, Fresnel zone, Fraunhofer zone, approximation of plane wave. Antennas
Interaction of radio frequency electromagnetic fields and microwaves with living matter, biological effects of NIR. Thermal and non-thermal effects. NIR dosimetry, SAR and dosimetric quantities, basic restrictions.
The regulatory framework in non-ionizing radiation, reference levels, environmental dosimetric quantities.
High frequency environmental sources, transmission systems, modulation, multiple access methods, AM and FM radio. Analogue and digital tv broadcasting equipment. Radio link. Radar.
Propagation of electromagnetic wave transmission purposes. Ground waves, spatial direct and reflected waves.
Cellular phone networks. Transmission systems GSM, DCS, UMTS and LTE.
Electromagnetic impact analysis produced in the surrounding territory.
Wi-Fi and Wi-Max, Hiperlan
Sanitary, industrial and civil electromagnetic field sources.
Electromagnetic field measuring instruments and methods of measurement. Narrowband and broadband measurements. Spectrum analyzers.
50 Hz electromagnetic field, high voltage overhead and underground power lines, legislation, methods of measurement and instrumentation. Evaluation methods of electromagnetic field produced in the territory.

3) Acoustics.
Physical phenomena and physical quantities. Sound, sound pressure, sound intensity and power. Noise levels: the decibel.
Acoustic quantities: equivalent level, SEL, spectral analysis, spectral bands, acoustic reception, sound sensation. Equal-loudness chart and weighing factors. Indices for the determination of the noise. Pink and white noise. Sonograms.
The propagation of sound and noise barriers.
Instrumentation for measuring noise: sound level meters and microphones. Free field and diffuse field.
Regulatory framework of environmental acoustics. Limit quantities to be used, methods of measurement in the environment and in the indoor space. Acoustic differential, emission and immission environmental limits. Modeling of noise impact assessments.

Given the variety of topics covered and the difficulty in finding appropriate texts during the course is projected teaching materials prepared by the teacher, which is then distributed to students. Also provides, on request, technical and legal aspects furthering specific documents used during the course.

The module provides lectures including examples and exercises aimed at a more complete understanding of the material presented.

Office hours
At the end of the lesson or by appointment (write to