Degree course: 
Corso di First cycle degree in Physics
Academic year when starting the degree: 
Academic year in which the course will be held: 
Course type: 
Compulsory subjects, characteristic of the class
First Semester
Standard lectures hours: 
Detail of lecture’s hours: 
Lesson (66 hours)

- knowledge of statistics and of the error theory
- basic knowledge of the English language

Final Examination: 

The verification is performed in several phases:
- the activity in the lab and the data keeping in a logbook
- the lab reports: they are corrected and students are required to modify them if necessary. The oral examination cannot be performed if the reports are not ok
- the presentation to the rest of the class of the modern physics experiment
- the final test is an oral examination in which the student starts with a 20 minute lesson on a topic he/she chooses. Then the student is tested on the other topics of the course with questions that allow to understand the competences acquired by the student himself/herself.

Voto Finale

- development of programming and data analysis skills
- management of a large quantity of data with automatic procedures
- understanding of basic level electronic circuits
- assembly of modern physics experiments, data taking and analysis
- development of the capability of working in a group
- development of the capability of writing a scientific report
- development of the capability of managing an experiment

Introduction to the basic principles of analog electronics (with activity in the laboratory and written reports):
1. Thevenin and Norton theorems, sinusoidal regime with complex phasors
2. RC, RL and RLC filters and their use as differentiators and integrators
3. semiconductor working principles and circuits with diodes (IV curves for different diode types, half-wave and full-wave rectifiers, ripple as a function of the load, photodiodes, remote control assembly)
measurement of the Planck constant with LEDs
4. bipolar transistors and circuits: emitter follower (load effect on the signal amplitude, minimum current, current source); common emitter (characterization as a function of gain and frequency); push-pull circuit; cross-over in the push-pull circuit and solution to overcome it
5. opamps: inverting and non inverting opamps (measurement of the gain, phase difference and 3dB frequency for several values of the feedback resistor); measurement of the slew rate for different opamps; adder; opamps used as differentiators and integrators; assembly of an audio amplifier
6. transmission lines: measurement of the propagation speed, of the characteristic impedance, of the unit length capacitance, of the signal attenuation
Modern physics experiments:
- measurement of the charge/mass ratio of the electron (circular experiment and with Thomson's setup)
- measurement of the diffraction of electrons
- Franck-Hertz experiment
- measurement of the photoelectric effect


The following texts are used during the course:
- Horowitz e Hill, The art of electronics, Cambridge Univ. Press, 1989
- A.C.Melissinos, Experiments in modern Physics, Acad. Press 1966
Students are given the slides of each lesson, articles and notes when needed. The laboratory reports for the electronic circuit experiments are pre-organized and the results that have to be inserted and discussed are indicated.

The course consists of:
- lessons for the general introduction of the course and the analysis of the activities that will be performed in the laboratory sessions
- laboratory sessions in which experiments are performed in groups and are followed by analysis sessions
The course lasts 66 hours but the number of hours increases if students need to be followed for a longer time. Standard lessons require less than 15 hours. Tutors are available to follow the students in the lab sessions.
For the modern physics part of the course, each group is assigned one of the experiments and has to manage it autonomously as far as the data taking, the analysis and the final results presentation are concerned.

To meet to discuss results and reports, write an email to the teacher: valerio.mascagna@uninsubria.it