Fundamentals of chemistry

Degree course: 
Academic year when starting the degree: 
Academic year in which the course will be held: 
Standard lectures hours: 

No prerequisites are required, but it is useful to have basic notions of mathematics (exponential notation, logarithms, equation of first and second degree).

Final Examination: 

Module B - Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry
The evaluation consists of a written test based on the solution of typical problems related to chemical analysis and an oral examination. The oral examination consists of a critical discussion of the written test and laboratory reports. The final vote is properly mediated between written, oral and laboratory reports.

The final grade is mediated between the results of the 1st and 2nd form.

Voto Finale

Knowledge of the main laws of general chemistry and their application to solving problems of environmental interest.

Module B – Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry

Acquisition of
• Analytical Chemistry laboratory ability and introduction to theory and practice of modern instrumental analytical techniques.
• Field sampling ability, including pre-treatment and conservation of analytical samples
• judgment autonomy to evaluate and critically interpret, chemical and phyical-chemical experimental data according to analyzed environment.
• adequate skills in statistical treatment and evaluation of analytical data
• “on field” teamwork ability and evaluation of referenced data.

Atomic structure: general description, electronic structure of multielectron atoms, quantum numbers, orbitals. Periodic table of elements, periodic properties, ionization potential, electron affinity, electronegativity. Chemical bonding: ionic, covalent bond, octet rule, Lewis structures, molecular geometry (VSEPR teory), intermolecular bonds. Symbols, formulas and nomenclature. Moles, chemical reactions, concepts of thermodynamics. Chemical kinetics: basic concepts Balancing chemical equations, yield of reaction, stoichiometric calculations. States of matter: gaseous state (state equation, Dalton's law, vapor pressure and boiling temperature), solid state (relations between structure and properties), liquid (surface tension). Solutions: preparation, concentration. Chemical equilibrium: homogeneous and heterogeneous equilibrium, equilibrium constants, law of mass action, Le Chatelier principle. Equilibrium in aqueous solution: acids and bases, ionic product of water, pH, buffer solutions, salts hydrolysis. Titrations: acid-base. Equilibrium solubility, common ion effect. Electrochemistry: galvanic cells, electrolysis, electrode potentials, Nernst equation.

Module B – Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry
Statistic – Simplified approach of statistic methods in Analytical Chemistry and data evaluation.
Sampling – short introduction to sampling methods, conservation and chemical digestion of samples in solid and liquid phase.
Chemical equilibrium and Analytical Chemistry – application of basic rules of chemical equilibrium in Analytical Chemistry: acids and basis, red-ox, precipitation and complexation equilibria, application in titration methods.
Quantitative Methods – titration methods, selecting and evaluating the End Point: use of indicator, primary and secondary standard materials.
Instrumental Analysis – general information, selection criteria of analytical methods, calibration curves, methods of standards addition.
Basic analytical instrumentation – molecular spectroscopic techniques, introduction to chromatography.
Environmental Analysis – theoretical and practical aspects in environmental analysis, use of portable instrumentation for sampling and “in situ” analysis.

Laboratory – basic operations in quantitative analysis: weighing, volume measure, use of quantitative glassware. Safety and behavior rules in chemistry laboratories.

Martin S. Silberberg.
3a ed. - McGraw-Hill

Chimica Generale
P. Atkins, L. Jones.
2a ed. Zanichelli.

A. Caselli, S. Rizzato, F. Tessore
dal testo di M. Freni e A. Sacco
5° edizione Edises

Module B - Laboratorio di Chimica Analitica
F.w. Fifield & P.J.Haines; Environmental Analytical Chemistry, Blackwell Science
D.C.Harris, Elementi di Chimica Analitica , Zanichelli
S.E.Kegley and J Andrews, “The Chemistry of Water”, University Science Book.
L.H.Keith, “Environmental Sampling and Analysis : A Practical Guide”, Lewis Publ.


Module B - Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry

Interdisciplinary approach will be follow, joining practical experiences (24 hours) with theoretical lessons (24 hours) and “on field” laboratory (24 hours). Field laboratory in lacustrine and montane environment will stress the sampling problems, the analytical approach on field, data elaboration and, finally, correct analytical report.

At the end of each lesson or in the studio of professor (Monday-Friday) by appointment agreed by e-mail or phone.