Degree course: 
Academic year when starting the degree: 
Academic year in which the course will be held: 
Standard lectures hours: 

Applied Biology to Animal Cell
Required precondition for understanding the course subject are the basic notions furnished by the high school

Basic knowledge of General Biology is necessary for successful learning in the course. There are no constraints on propedeuticity.

Final Examination: 

Applied Biology to Animal Cell

The exam consists of a written final test. The student will be asked some questions about the teaching program, concerning both general concepts and problematic or specific techniques. The objective of the final exam is to verify the level of achievement of the course objectives, firstly assessing the possession of basic knowledge elements and the ability to use them autonomously to solve real problems. The final score will be expressed in marks out of 30.


The exam consists of a practical test and a final oral exam. For the first part of the exam (practical test) some animal organisms will be shown with the purpose of evaluating morpho-functional characteristics and taxonomic recognition, there will also be questions (including at least one of them) about the program teaching and dealing with both general and problematic issues or specific techniques. The goal of the final exam is to check the level of achievement of the training objectives, firstly assessing the possession of the basic knowledge elements and therefore the student's ability to use them autonomously to solve real problems. The final evaluation, expressed along a scale 0-30, will take into account learning (30%), the ability to apply theoretical concepts to real cases (30%), judgment autonomy (30%) and communication skills (10 %).

Voto Finale

Applied Biology to Animal Cell
The course provides the basis for understanding the animal physiology, starting from the study of morphology and cell physiology to the essential functions of animal organisms. The course focuses to the study of the cell as a functional unit of living, providing a detailed view of subcellular structures and their role in metabolism and cell-cell interactions.
The main cellular functions, such as: the flow of genetic information; basic metabolic cycles; proliferation, differentiation and cell death; synthesis, sorting and degradation of proteins; intercellular cross-talk; motility and fertilization will be addressed. The pluricellular organization, tissues and the main physiological functions of animal organisms will be studied.
Moreover, main protocols and instruments of experimental biology, such as microscopy techniques, cellular function analysis, characterization and purification of protein will be outlined.
Finally, some subjects of environmental interest that will involve knowledge of animal physiology will be addressed.

The course will contribute to providing and completing the information needed to gain proper knowledge of zoology, including issues related to evolution, species and species interaction, and species and habitats. The general objectives of the course are: I) to acquire the critical evaluation tools to obtain an adequate knowledge of the evolutionary and functional characteristics of the main zoological groups II) to acquire the critical evaluation tools to obtain an adequate knowledge of the evolutionary and functional problems of the main Phyla III) synergistically apply zoological knowledge with other disciplines IV) enhance their dissemination skills by exploiting the acquired knowledge. The emphasis will be on the evolution of organs and apparatus, on functional evolution, reproductive strategies and sexuality. The phylogeny and the main criteria for the classification of animal groups will be treated. The organization, reproduction and sexuality in the Protozoi will also be presented. The main features of Metazoi will be described: the early stages of embryonic development, the appearance of body cavities, and the origin of Protostomi and Deuterostomi. Description of Phyla animals will take place with particular regard to organization, adaptation and phylogenetic relationships. The zoological course therefore aims to provide an overview of animal diversity through animal phylogeny.

Applied Biology to Animal Cell
What are Biological Sciences
General structure of living - Unicellular and multicellular organisms

The chemistry of life
Basics of General Chemistry - Macromolecules: Proteins, Carbohydrates, Lipids, Nucleic Acids

The origin of life
Origin of the procaryote and eukaryote cell

Biology Research: Methods and Instruments:
Observation and manipulation of biological samples, microscopy techniques, protein analysis

Cellular Biology
General structure of the eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells
Cell sub-structures: organelles: plasmalemma, RE and RER and proteins, lysosomes and degradation, Protein synthesis and protein sorting, peroxisomes and detoxification, Golgi apparatus and glycosylation, mitochondria and energy.

Cell biochemistry
The Fundamental Cycles - Energy and Oxidative Phosphorylation

Nucleus and gene expression
DNA, RNA, Chromatic, Transcription and Translation - Inheritance - Genotype and Phenotype - Epigenetic

Cell motility:
Cytoskeleton: Actin-Myosin, Tubulin, IFs
amoeboid, ciliary and flagellar motility.

Germ cells
Meiosis, Fertilization and Embryonic Development
Cell differentiation and stem cells

The cellular cross-talk: cell communication
Cellular interaction, Signals and Receptors
Cell cycle, Mitosis and cell death (necrosis and apoptosis)

Histology: cells in their social context
The tissues

Animal structure and functions:
Basics of organs and apparatus:
Gastrointestinal - Circulatory and Respiratory, Immune System, Excretory, Muscle, skeleton - Nervous

Implications of cellular biology on scientific issues of environmental interest.

The contents of the Zoology course are as follows:
Evolution of life and animal biodiversity
Darwinian approach, evolution, phylogeny and hierarchical classification, domains and kingdoms of life
Species, systematic and cellular classification and organization
Meaning and mechanisms of reproduction, gametogenesis and animal development
Support, protection, movement
Breathing, circulation, excretion
Digestion and nutrition
Nervous system, sense organs and endocrine system
Origins of eukaryotes, protists and protozoans
The origin of multicellularity and the branches
Radiations (Cnidaria and Ctenophora)
Acelomati (Platelminti, Nemertini, Gnatostomulidi)
Pseudocellomas (Rotifera, Acanthocephala, Gastrotricha, Nematoda, Nematomorpha)
Celcomas (Molluscs, Anellides, Arthropods)
Deuterostomies (Echinodermata and Emichordata, Chordata)

Applied Biology to Animal Cell
• Invito alla Biologia - Helena Curtis, N Sue Barnes, Adriana Schnek, Alicia Massarini – Zanichelli

• Principi di Biologia - David Sadava, CH Heller, GH Orians, WK Purves, DM Hillis - Zanichelli

The multimedia content (lessons and videos of the lessons) will be available to students on specific websites

C.P. Hickman, Jr. S. Roberts, S.L. Keen, D.J. Eisenhour, A. Larson, H. L'Anson (2016). Fondamenti di Zoologia. McGraw – Hill

C.P. Hickman Jr., L.S. Roberts, S.L. Keen, D.J. Eisenhour, A. Larson H. L'Anson (2016). Diversità animale. McGraw - Hill

F. Harvey Pough, Christine M. Janis, John B. Heiser (2014). Zoologia dei vertebrati. Pearson

Pdf files of each lesson available on-line (Insubria e-learning web site).


Applied Biology to Animal Cell
Lectures and visits to research laboratories

Frontal lessons with exercises. The purpose of the exercises is to develop analytical and understanding skills with regard to specific skills acquisition, assessing the resolution of specific zoological problems, particularly on structure and function and on systematic features.

Applied Biology to Animal Cell
Student reception: the teacher is always available by previous agreement by email:
At request, the teacher will use part of the lecture to clarify topics of previous lectures. It is also possible to ask for elucidations during the lectures.

The teacher in charge is always available, subject to the arrangement of an appointment by e-mail.
At students request, the teacher will use the first part of a lecture to clarify or elaborate on previous lectures topics. It is also possible to ask for elucidations during the lectures.
The use of the e-learning platform (forums, glossaries) is highly recommended to share among students any requested issue.