Degree course: 
Corso di Second cycle degree in BIOMEDICAL SCIENCES
Academic year when starting the degree: 
Academic year in which the course will be held: 
Course type: 
Compulsory subjects, characteristic of the class
First Semester
Standard lectures hours: 
Detail of lecture’s hours: 
Lesson (48 hours)

To fully understand the topics addressed in the present course, students should possess basic notions of cellular biology, human physiology and general and molecular pharmacology.

Final Examination: 

The learning outcomes will be assessed by an oral interview (about 30 minutes in duration) on any topic selected from the syllabus; students may opt to take two separate interviews, in which case the program will be split into two parts (first interview: nervous system, inflammation and immunity; second interview: the remaining topics). However students are advised that:
(a) an interview on one half of the program is not a half-interview, i.e. students will take two full interviews for a single final grade;
(b) at the time of the second interview, the first half of the program is taken for granted, i.e. students are not authorized to remove the first part from their "mental archives"

Top grades ( 28/30), and possibly honors, will only be awarded to students that can demonstrate the ability to identify and discuss the general principles underlying drug action and the major therapeutic approaches, and to work out the connections between the various topics of the course.

Voto Finale

Knowledge and understanding
At the end of the course, students should be able to:
1. understand and describe the mechanisms of action and the pharmacological and toxic effects of the major classes of drugs in current clinical use;

2. understand and discuss the strategies that have been established to treat a variety of diseases and pathological states, including some disorders of the central nervous system (degenerative diseases, epilepsy, acute and chronic pain states);
3. understand and discuss the basic principles of antibacterial and antiviral chemotherapeutics and the relevant issues and pitfalls connected with their use.

Applying knowledge and understanding
At the end of the course, students should have the theoretical competences that will allow them to select and apply the appropriate pharmacological techniques to the preclinical in vitro and in vivo assessment of drug effects

1. Drugs acting on the nervous system:
1.1. drugs acting on the peripheral and autonomous nervous systems;
1.2. current and prospective therapies of neurodegenerative diseases (Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases)
1.3. Epilepsy and anticonvulsant drugs
1.4. Drugs and pain: analgesics and anesthetics
2. Pharmacology of inflammation and immunity:
2.1. non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDS)
2.2. corticosteroids
2.3. biological agents
2.4. immune suppressants
Special topic: Airway inflammation and asthma
3. Pharmacology of metabolic diseases:
3.1. diabetes
3.2. dyslipidemias
3.3. obesity
4. Cardiovascular pharmacology
4.1. Pharmacology of vascular tone and volume regulation
4.2. Pharmacology of cardiac rhythm
4.3. Pharmacology of cardiac contractility
4.4. Pharmacology of hemostasis and thrombosis
5. Chemotherapy of infectious diseases:
5.1. Antibacterial agents
5.2. Antimalarial agents
5.3. Antiviral agents
For each topic, the relevant experimental models in current pre-clinical use will also be illustrated and discussed.

Students will find the visual materials presented during the lectures on the Moodle platform, compatibly with the laws on copyright.
The following reference textbooks are recommended:
D.E. Golan, E.J. Armstrong, A.W. Armstrong: Principles of Pharmacology - The Pathophysiologic Basis of Drug Therapy. 4th Edition, 2016, Wolters Kluwer.
F. Clementi, G. Fumagalli: Farmacologia Generale & Molecolare, IV edizione, UTET editrice.

The course consists of ex cathedra lectures, but aims at creating a direct interaction between students and teacher, in order to stir the students' interest concerning the topics of the course.
Lectures and the accompanying visual materials are the major source of information for the student. Thus consistent attendance is recommended; students are also encouraged to further investigate aspects of special interest, by referring to the recommended textbooks and/or by critically searching the Internet.