Degree course: 
Corso di Second cycle degree in BIOMEDICAL SCIENCES
Academic year when starting the degree: 
Academic year in which the course will be held: 
Course type: 
Compulsory subjects, characteristic of the class
First Semester
Standard lectures hours: 
Detail of lecture’s hours: 
Lesson (48 hours)

In order to follow the course, an adequate knowledge of cell and molecular biology, biochemistry and physiology is required

Final Examination: 

Oral exames. To pass the exam, the student will need to demonstrate sufficient knowledge of the topics covered in class to pass the exam.

Voto Finale

This course will also provide the students with the opportunity to develop as adult learners and as effective contributors in a professional environment by:
1. Being responsible for their own learning and for the depth of their own study.
2. Using their own initiative to make use of all the available resources to complement lecture material, including academic staff resources (consultation time, email).
3. Working in a team environment and contributing effectively to their own learning and to that of their peers by questioning each other and academic staff when uncertain.
4. Developing communication skills by effective interaction with peers and academic staff.

1) Brief history of the changing concept of disease in Western medical thought. Overview: Diagnosis and aetiology of disease; inherited versus acquired disorders, Cellular Responses to Stress and Noxious Stimuli. The body’s response to lethal and sub-lethal injury. Homeostasis and adaptive response to injury.
2) Cellular Responses to Stress and Toxic Insults: Adaptation, Injury, and Death. Adaptations of Cellular Growth and Differentiation. Hypertrophy, Hyperplasia, Atrophy, Metaplasia. Cell Injury and Cell Death. Causes of Cell Injury, Morphologic Alterations in Cell Injury, Reversible injury, Necrosis. Mechanism of cell injury. Clinico-Pathologic Correlations: Selected Examples of Cell Injury and Necrosis. Ischemic and Hypoxic Injury, Chemical (Toxic) Injury. Apoptosis. Autophagy. Cellular aging and senescence
3) Intracellular accumulations and calcifications. Lipids, Proteins, Hyaline change, Glycogen, Pigments. Pathological calcifications, dystrophic and metastatic calcifications
4) Acute and Chronic Inflammation. Acute Inflammation, Mediators of Inflammation, Outcome of Acute Inflammation, Morphologic Patterns of Acute Inflammation. Chronic Inflammation, Systemic effects of Inflammation, Consequences of Defective or excessive Inflammation.
5) Tissue renewal, regeneration and repair. Control of Normal Cell Proliferation and Tissue Growth, Cell Cycle and the Regulation of Cell Replication, Mechanisms of Tissue and Organ Regeneration, Extracellular Matrix and Cell-Matrix Interactions, Healing by Repair, Scar Formation and Fibrosis (inflammation, angiogenesis, migration and proliferation of fibroblasts, scar formation connective tissue remodelling).
6) Hemodynamic Disorders, Thromboembolic Disease, and Shock. Edema, Hyperemia and congestion, haemorrhage, Homeostasis and thrombosis, Embolism, Infarction, shock
7) Genetic disorders. Mendelian disorders, Complex multigenic disorders, chromosomal disorders, Single-gene disorders with non-classic inheritance.
8) Infectious disease. Categories of Infectious Agents. Transmission and Dissemination of Microbes. How Microorganisms Cause Disease. Immune Evasion by Microbes. Infections in Immunosuppressed Hosts. Spectrum of Inflammatory Responses to Infection.

The textbook is:
Authors: Vinay Kumar & Abul K. Abbas & Jon C. Aster
Title: Robbins & Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease, 9th Edition. Elsevier
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The course topics will be dealt with through lectures-style instruction. Working groups will be organized on specific issues related to the course topics, on which the students will have to prepare an assay and a presentation.