Degree course: 
Corso di Second cycle degree in BIOMEDICAL SCIENCES
Academic year when starting the degree: 
Academic year in which the course will be held: 
Course type: 
Compulsory subjects, characteristic of the class
Second semester
Standard lectures hours: 
Detail of lecture’s hours: 
Lesson (48 hours)

To follow this course the student must have a general knowledge of embryonic development, neuronal function and activity (e.g. communication between neurons-neurons/ neurons-glia ; neurotransmitters) and a knowledge of the organization of the human body. Moreover, the student must be able to understand English and be capable of reading scientific publications.

Final Examination: 

Learning achievements are evaluated through an oral interview.

Voto Finale

The main outcome consists in the acquisition of knowledge regarding the principles of neuroanatomy and neurodevelopment. The student will be able to: I) use in a correct manner the anatomic nomenclature of the nervous system of humans and experimental animal models; II) know the topographical and functional relationship between the different areas of the nervous system in order to also understand the functional and anatomic bases of different pathological processes.

- Introduction to the Neuroanatomy: basic nomenclature; topography of the nervous system; constitutive elements of the nervous system. Macroscopic anatomy of the nervous system.
- Neurodevelopment: general embryonic development (cleavage, gastrulation). The fate of the ectoderm and neuroectoderm. Neural induction and CNS regionalization.
- The Spinal Cord and reflexes.
- The Brain in toto and its regionalizations. Brainstem. Diencephalon. Telencephalon. Limbic System. Cerebellum.
- Somatosensory System. Somatosensory pathways (proprioceptive and somatic sensitivity pathways).
- Motor Pathways (pyramidal and extrapyramidal systems).
- The special senses. Basic olfactory patway. Basic visual pathway. Auditory and vestibular systems. Basic gustatory pathway.
- Basic knowledge of cranial nerves and spinal nerves.
- The autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system. The enteric nervous system.
- The Cerebrospinal Fluid. Cerebral Circulation.

Students may study by following the trace of the teaching material (slides on-line), with the help of Neuroscience textbook and atlas, such as:
- Principles of Neural Science E.R. Kandel, J.H. Schwartz, T.M. Jessel - McGraw Hill Professional, 2013.
- Seeley et al. Anatomia, II edizione - Idelson Gnocchi
- Montagnani et al. Anatomia Umana Normale - Idelson Gnocchi
- Martini et al. Anatomia Umana, IV edizione - Edises;
- Tillmann. Atlante di Anatomia umana - Zanichelli
- Netter. Atlante di Anatomia umana –Masson
- Online atlas

Teaching activities are based on lectures. Lectures follow the line of slide presentations that are made available on-line to the students.