Degree course: 
Corso di Long single cycle degree (6 years) in MEDICINE AND SURGERY
Academic year when starting the degree: 
Academic year in which the course will be held: 
Course type: 
Compulsory subjects, characteristic of the class
First Semester
Standard lectures hours: 
Detail of lecture’s hours: 
Lesson (40 hours)

Basic biology knowledge

Written test

Voto Finale

Acquisition of basic knowledge of microorganisms
Acquisition of principles underlying the human-microorganism interaction
Acquisition of basic knowledge of anti-infective therapy
Biological properties of bacteria, viruses, fungi and protozoa;
Infection and transmission concept;
Disinfection and sterilization concept
Mechanisms of natural and acquired resistance to infectious agents;
Pathogenetic mechanisms of infectious processes;
Principles of pharmacotherapy and immunological prevention of infections

1. Historical aspects of microbiology and immunology: from the first microscopic observations to molecular microbiology
2. Prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
Criteria for the classification of microorganisms

General bacteriology
3. The bacterial cell.
Wall of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria
External wall membrane of Gram-negative bacteria: structure and toxic effects of lipopolysaccharide.
Cytoplasmic membrane: composition, transport mechanisms, osmotic regulation
Fimbriae and pili as adhesion structures and their antigenicity
Flagella and bacterial movement; concept of chemoreceptor and chemotaxis.
Organization of the bacterial chromosome
Bacterial spore: structure, resistance to physical and chemical agents, regulation of sporulation and germination, biological and medical significance.
4. Nutrition and bacterial biochemistry.
Nourishing, metabolite, catabolite.
Energy production in bacteria: autotrophic and heterotrophic metabolism; concept of breathing and fermentation; bacterial fermentation.
Aerobiosis and anaerobiosis.
5. Organization of genetic information in bacteria.
Structure and replication of the bacterial chromosome; genetic recombination; DNA repair mechanisms.
Spontaneous and induced mutations; mutation frequency; suppression of mutations; mutagenic agents.
Transponable genetic elements
Bacterial plasmids: conjugative and non-conjugative plasmids, resistance plasmids
Mechanisms of transfer of genetic information in bacteria: transformation, conjugation, transduction.
6. Growth of bacterial populations.
Biological meaning of growth phases in liquid soil; relationships between in vitro bacterial growth and infection pathogenesis
7. Sterilization and disinfection.
Biological bases of the action of physical and chemical agents.
8. Antibacterial drugs.
Biological bases of selectivity and main mechanisms of action.
Criteria for the choice of drugs and for the use of associations
10. Pathogenetic aspects.
Infection and disease; pathogenicity and virulence; exogenous and endogenous infections.
Adhesion of microorganisms to surfaces; colonization; tissue penetration and invasion.
Superficial and systemic infections. Organ tropism. Exotoxins and endotoxins.
Biological effects of endotoxins. Pathogenetic role of exoenzymes.

General virology
12. Structure of animal viruses.
Size and morphology of viral particles; organization of RNA and DNA viral genomes
Structure of capsid and envelope; virion enzymes; other components.
Host, organ and tissue tropism
Principles of virus classification
13. Virus replication.
Cellular infection with animal viruses: receptor binding, penetration, uncoating, expression of the viral genome.
DNA and RNA virus replication.
Assembly, maturation and release of viral particles
Cytopathic effect: morphological aspects and molecular mechanisms.
Mutations, genetic recombination and gene reassortment as cause of viral variability.
14. Principles of antiviral chemotherapy
15. Pathogenesis of viral infections.
Sensitivity of cells to infection.
Acute, latent and persistent viral infections
Viral oncogenesis
Effect of viruses on the fetus (congenital infections)
Immunopathology in viral infections

Antonelli - Clementi - Pozzi - Rossolini
Principi di microbiologia medica
Casa Editrice Ambrosiana

Microbiologia medica
Patrick R. Murray, Michael A. Pfaller, Ken S. Rosenthal
Edra editore

Frontal lessons