Degree course: 
Corso di Long single cycle degree (6 years) in MEDICINE AND SURGERY
Academic year when starting the degree: 
Academic year in which the course will be held: 
Course type: 
Compulsory subjects, characteristic of the class
First Semester
Standard lectures hours: 
Detail of lecture’s hours: 
Lesson (32 hours)

Anatomy, microbiology, immunity, chemistry and biochemistry. The students will also have physiology and general pathology in the same semester.

The student must pass both a written and oral exam to access the oral exam. The student will have to do a written test of 50 questions to be solved in 60 minutes. The questions will be related to the course content; and will be structured on: knowledge acquisition and understanding (45%) and application of the knowledge acquired (35%), judgment autonomy (10%), and learning ability (10%).
To pass the written test the student must get a score of 18/30. The oral exam that concerns questions related to the theoretical base and practice of human physiopathology; knowledge acquisition and understanding (40%) and application of the knowledge acquired (30%), judgment autonomy (10%), communication skills (10%) and learning ability (10%).

Voto Finale

The course in physiopathology the students learn the basic principles of and the mechanisms of systemic and organ physiopathology. This course focuses on the pathophysiology of common disease conditions affecting human beings across the lifespan. Pathophysiology is a course that builds on basic medical science (anatomy, physiology, microbiology and chemistry) obtained from earlier courses which will lead the student to clinical medicine. It enables the medical students and clinicians to understand how and why diseases develop and various symptoms occur, clinical manifestations appear, what the underlying mechanisms are and how to choose proper therapeutics. At the end of the course the student will be able to understand the pathophysiologic bases of common human health alterations and associated clinical manifestations and elucidate the pathophysiological principles underlying the pathogenesis and therefore treatment of the disease.

Specific arguments include:
Vascular systems: Causes and mediators of pathologies of hematopoiesis and angiogenesis.
Hemostasis: hemorrhagic syndromes, disseminated intravascular coagulation, thrombosis
Atherosclerosis: causes and consequences; hyperlipidemias, hypertension, vascular damage, clinical manifestations and complications.
Physiopathology of the Cardiovascular system: myocardial ischemia, pressure hypertrophies and hypertension, cardiac insufficiency.
Physiopathology of the Respiratory system: dyspnea e cyanosis, acute and chronic respiratory insufficiency.
Acid/base equilibrium: respiratory and metabolic acidosis and alkalosis.
Renal Physiopathology: nephritic and nephrotic syndromes, glomerulonephritis, cystic diseases, acute and chronic renal insufficiency.
Hepatic Physiopathology: steatosis and cirrhosis, jaundice, hepatic insufficiency.
Physiopathology of the endocrine system: diabetes (and fluid control), the hypothalamus-pituitary system, hypo and hyper thyroid, parathyroid and adrenal functions.

Kumar, Abbas, Aster – “Robbins and Cotran – The Pathologic Basis of Disease” Elsevier.
McCance and Huether – “Pathophysiology: The basis for disease in adults and Children” Mosby (Elsevier).

The course objectives will be achieved through frontal lessons for a total of 30 hours. The frequency of lessons is required.

The professor will receive students in his office (Via Monte Generoso 71, “Ex Cascina”) after making an appointment by e-mail.