Degree course: 
Corso di Long single cycle degree (6 years) in School of Dentistry
Academyc year when starting the degree: 
Academyc year when helding the course: 
Course type: 
Compulsory subjects, characteristic of the class
First Semester
Standard lectures hours: 
Detail of lecture’s hours: 
Lesson (50 hours)

The topics discussed in the course requires knowledge in the disciplines: General neurophysiology and stomatognathic apparatus, Human anatomy, General psychology.

Final Examination: 

The examination is an oral or written test. The objective of the test is to check the level of achievement of the above-mentioned training objectives, assessing the level of knowledge and depth of the topics discussed, and especially the ability to link and compare different aspects of the programs. It will be also taken into account the commitment, sharing and language. The vote is expressed in thirty.

Voto Finale

At the end of the course the student will be able to:
A) know the oral temporo mandibular functions;
B) know and apply the approach to the dental patient;
C) know and apply the diagnosis useful to define the pathology of temporomandibular joint;
D) know the classification of functional pathologies of temporomandibular joint;
E) apply the basics therapy of both mandibular and muscular joint dysfunction;
F) know the interdisciplinary issues related to oral functions.
The student will also acquire autonomy of judgment and scientific terminology for communication in the field of reference. Clinical exercise activities aim to deepen and complete the theoretical lessons, making the students familiar with some basic protocols for gnathological treatment.

The Course describes and analyze anatomical bases, physiological and biomechanics of the temporo mandibular joint (TMJ), necessary in order to know the physiopathology and the classifications of TMJ pathology. In particular, notes on diagnostic aspect, clinical and strumental. The course describe also nores on therapeutic details, in particular: pharmacologic approach, cognitive behavioral, bites, TMJ Disc Dislocation, TMJ closed lock, Condyle TMJ open lock, Arthritis, Muscle Disorders, Condyle Fracture, Coronary Hyperplasia, Anchylosis, Bruxism and Somatization or Psychological Disorder

• What is gnathology?
• Epidemiology of Pain and TMJ dysfunction?
• How does TMJ work?
• Historical evolution of the gnathological treatment?
• Etiology of TMJ dysfunctions and pathologies and facial muscles?
• What about patient communication and aesthetics?
• What is the difference between primary and secondary patients’ needs?
• What about person-centered medicine?
• What are setting and empathy?
• How does active listening develop?
• What about counseling and transactional analysis?
• How do I perform clinical gnathology diagnosis?
• What are instrumental exams for TMJ diagnosis?
• What happens to the TMJ if I apply a bite at dental level?
• What is cognitive behavioral therapy?
• What is the pharmacological therapy in gnathology?
• Describe the characteristics and functions of dental bite?
• Diagnostics and therapy of Reduced dislocation of the meniscus (click), Non-reducible dislocation of the meniscus (closed lock), hypertranslation (subluxation), Open Lock (dislocation), Muscle disorders, Condyle fracture, Bruxism, Coronary hyperplasia, Osas and snoring, Dental wear.

- Gagnesi Guglielmo. ATM Patologie articolari e muscolo ligamentose - guida illustrata alla diagnosi e alla terapia. Piccin, Milano, 2002
- Bodin Christiane et al .Funzioni Orofacciali e ATM. Libreria Cortina Verona, 2012
- Deodato F. L'articolazione tempo mandibolare. Ambrosiana, Milano, 2009.

The course is frontal lessons and clinical exercises. Lessons are supported by slide projection. For practical activities, students will be divided into small groups.

Teacher receives by appointment, upon request by e-mail ( The teacher only responds to e-mails signed by