Degree course: 
Corso di Long single cycle degree (6 years) in School of Dentistry
Academic year when starting the degree: 
Academic year in which the course will be held: 
First Semester
Standard lectures hours: 

To be admitted to the final exam of Human Physiology it is necessary to possess a positive evaluation of the exams of Human Anatomy and of Biochemistry

Final Examination: 

The exam will be composed of a written multiple choice exam, whose success will give the Students the possibility to access the oral examination (viva). The final mark will be given by the viva alone.

Voto Finale

Objectives and expected learning outcomes
The objective of the Corse of Human Physiology is to provide to the Students all information needed to understand, from the biophysical and quantitative standpoint, the mechanisms of functioning of body organs and systems and their control performed by the central and autonomic nervous system and by the endocrine system.

Detailed program
Nervous system:
Resting membrane potential. Constant in time and space of the nerve fibers. Action potential and its propagation. Synapses. Neuromuscular Junction. Neuronal coding. Synaptic integration. sensory systems. Monosynaptic reflexes and plurisinaptic. tactile and kinesthetic sensibility. tactile receptors. Neuromuscular spindles :. Bodies muscle-Golgi tendon. thermal and pain sensitivity. vestibular apparatus. acoustic sensitivity, visual, olfactory and gustatory. motor control. The neuromotor units. Spinal reflexes. Maintaining posture. Motor coordination. afferent pathways, efferent. voluntary movement. cortical areas. pain sensitivity. trigeminal system. Nociception in the oral cavity.
Distribution of blood volume. Velocity, cross section and pressure in the circulatory districts. Mechanical features of blood vessels. Laplace law applied to vessels. Bernoully law. Poiseuille law. Laminar and turbulent flow. Arterial and venous pulse pressure. Pressure distribution in the systemic and pulmonary circulation. Fluid and solute exchanges between microvasculature and interstitial space. Lymph formation and propulsion. Oedema. Nervous and endocrine control of arterial pressure. Pulmonary circulation. Coronary circulation. Cerebral circulation.
Cardiac pace-maker. Specialized excitatory ad conductive system of the heart. Resting membrane potential and action potential in miocytes. ECG. Control of cardiac function. Cardiac mechanics. Ventricular pressure and volume during cardiac cycle. Cardiac stroke and cardiac output. Work output, cardiac efficiency. Cardiac metabolism.
Air composition and respiratory gasses. Spirometry, static lung volumes. Pulmonary and alveolar volume and flow. Lung, chest and respiratory system pressure-volume curves. Intrapleural pressure and pneumothorax. Mechanical work of respiration. Respiratory gas exchanges. O2 consumption and CO2. production. Respiratory ratio. Alveolar gas equation. Alveolo-capillary respiratory gas diffusion. O2 and CO2 transport in blood transport in blood. Ventilation-perfusion ratio. Artero-venous shunt, hypoxia. Nervous and chemical control of respiratory function.
Glomerular filtration. Renal blood flow and filtration fraction. Glomerular auto regulation. Renal clearance. Absorption of water, Na+, Cl-, bicarbonates, aminoacids, urea. Secretion of H+ and organic substances. Henle loop. Counter current mechanism. Osmolarity in tubular and extracellular fluid. Vasa recta. Distal convolute and collecting tubules. Aldosterone and vasopressin. Regulation of volume and osmoticity in extracellular body fluids. Urine volume, pH and composition.
Physiological buffer solutions. H+ production and its buffering. Respiratory and metabolic acidosis and alkalosis. Control of pH by renal and respiratory correction.
Metabolism. Energetic fuel: anaerobic and aerobic pathways. Energy available in food. Oxygen debt. Basal, rest ad exercise metabolism. O2 consumption.
Function of skeletal muscle. Isometric, isotonic and iso-velocity contraction. Single twitch and tetanisation. Force-length diagram. Force-velocity diagram. Dynamic force-velocity diagram.
General features of the digestive tube. Peristaltic movements. Composition and functions of salivary, gastric, hepatic, pancreatic and intestinal secretion. Control of secretions. Digestion and absorption of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, ions (Fe++, Ca++, etc.), vitamins, drugs and water.
Mechanisms of hormone release and action in the pituitary gland, adrenal glands, thyroid, paratyroids, pancreas, gonads and of gastrointestinal hormones.

AA.VV. – FISIOLOGIA UMANA – a cura di F.Grassi, D.Negrini, C.A. Porro - Poletto Editore, Milano
AA.VV. – FISIOLOGIA MEDICA - a cura di F. Conti - Casa Editrice Edi-Ermes, Milano
Guyton & Hall – FISIOLOGIA MEDICA – Elsevier-Masson
Kandel, Schwartz – Principles of neural science – Elsevier
AA.VV. - Neuroscienze - a cura di D.Purves, Zanichelli
J.B.West – Respiratory Physiology

Final exam
The final evaluation consists in a multiple choice exam, performed through a digital support (PC), organized in 40 questions on the entire course programs. If the student attains a score greater than 18/30, the first part of the exam is passed and is followed by an oral exam consisting of 2 open questions on the entire course program.

Class Lectures