Degree course: 
Corso di First cycle degree in BIOTECHNOLOGY
Academic year when starting the degree: 
Academic year in which the course will be held: 
Course type: 
Compulsory subjects, characteristic of the class
First Semester
Standard lectures hours: 
Detail of lecture’s hours: 
Lesson (48 hours)

Histology, basic biology, microbiology, chemistry, biochemistry, physiology, immunology.

The student must pass an oral exam that concerns questions related to the theory and practice of general pathology and physiopathology; knowledge acquisition and understanding (40%) and application of the knowledge acquired (30%), judgment autonomy (20%), communication skills (10%) and learning ability (20%).

Voto Finale

The General Pathology and physiopathology course provides the students with the fundamentals of modern cellular and molecular pathology and will learn the basic principles of and the mechanisms of systemic and organ physiopathology. The course deals with the investigation of those pathological mechanisms common to all tissue-cell pathology; etiology, pathogenesis, morphologic changes, functional derangements and clinical significance. Attention is paid to the processes of cellular adaptation, cell death, cellular accumulation, tissue repair, inflammation, immunology and immunopathology, and neoplasia. This course takes the basic science that the student has learned in previous courses to clinical concepts. This also course focuses on the pathophysiology of common disease conditions affecting human beings across the lifespan. It enables the students to understand how and why diseases develop, clinical manifestations appear, what the underlying mechanisms. At the end of the course the student will be able to understand the pathophysiologic bases of common human health alterations and associated clinical manifestations and elucidate the pathophysiological principles underlying the pathogenesis and therefore treatment of the disease.

The arguments include:
- Etiology, pathogenesis, morphological changes and functional alterations
- extrinsic causes, examples and mechanisms of action of physical and chemical agents as well as poisons and nutritional factors
- Intrinsic causes, inheritance and examples of genetic diseases.
- causes of cell damage, cellular adaptation, growth and differentiation; hypertrophy; hyperplasia; metaplasia, atrophy
- Cell death: necrosis and apoptosis
- Healing and repair of injuries
- Cancer: Cell cycle control, nomenclature and classes of cancers, benign and malignant tumors, physical, chemical and viral carcinogenesis, genetics and cancer, oncogenes and oncosuppressors, definition and epidemiological evidence for multi-stage carcinogenesis, metastasis.
- Vascular systems: Causes and mediators of pathologies of hematopoiesis and angiogenesis.
- Hemostasis: hemorrhagic syndromes, disseminated intravascular coagulation, thrombosis
- Atherosclerosis: causes and consequences; hyperlipidemias, hypertension, vascular damage, clinical manifestations and complications.
- Physiopathology of the Cardiovascular system: myocardial ischemia, pressure hypertrophies and hypertension, cardiac insufficiency.
- Physiopathology of the Respiratory system: dyspnea e cyanosis, acute and chronic respiratory insufficiency.
- Acid/base equilibrium: respiratory and metabolic acidosis and alkalosis.
- Renal Physiopathology: nephritic and nephrotic syndromes, cystic diseases, acute and chronic renal insufficiency.
- Hepatic Physiopathology: steatosis and cirrhosis, jaundice, hepatic insufficiency.
- Physiopathology of the endocrine system: diabetes (and fluid control), the hypothalamus-pituitary system, hypo and hyper thyroid, parathyroid and adrenal functions.

Kumar, Abbas, Aster – “Robbins and Cotran – The Pathologic Basis of Disease” Elsevier.
McCance and Huether – “Pathophysiology: The basis for disease in adults and Children” Mosby (Elsevier).


The course objectives will be achieved through frontal lessons for a total of 56 hours. Given the vast area that this course covers, the attendance of the lessons is highly recommended.

The professor will receive students in his office (Via Monte Generoso 71, “Ex Cascina”) after making an appointment by e-mail.