Degree course: 
Corso di First cycle degree in BIOTECHNOLOGY
Academic year when starting the degree: 
Academic year in which the course will be held: 
Course type: 
Compulsory subjects, characteristic of the class
Second semester
Standard lectures hours: 
Detail of lecture’s hours: 
Lesson (48 hours)

Pre-requisites are the courses of Cytology and Histology.

Final Examination: 

The exam will consist of an oral exam, two questions, in which the student will be asked to demonstrate the knowledge about the program he is doing. The purpose of the exam is to verify the level of achievement of the training objectives stated previously; to assess the student's level of knowledge about the functioning of the various immune system cells, its molecules as well as various immune mediated pathologies, and immune system modulation processes. The exam results will be in thirty points, and to pass the exam, the student must score at least 18 (eighteen).
In particular the exam is aimed at assessing the student's skills in relation to:
1. Basic knowledge of the innate and adaptive immune system, understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of sensitization and immune activation in response to the recognition of a pathogen and the mechanisms of interaction and cooperation between innate and adaptive immune system in response to pathogens (50% of the final vote);
4. Understanding and deepening the dynamics of acquired immunity, immune memory, mucous immunity, immune response processes in HIV infection, allergies, autoimmunity, tumor response, and immune response deficiencies in immunodeficiency (50% of the final vote).

Voto Finale

The course provides the principles of innate and acquired immunity, their dynamics and their functioning in health and illness.
The student will have to demonstrate:
1) To have learned about the functioning of the various cell types, their interactions and the basic molecules of the immune system;
2) To have developed understanding and description capabilities of the various mechanisms of resistance to the immune system that pathogenic microorganisms implement and the characteristics of immune mediated pathologies such as hypersensitivity and autoimmunity, as well as modulation of immune system processes in transplants, vaccines, and some innovative anti-cancer immunotherapies;
3) To be able, through a critical and concise discussion, to autonomously gain additional knowledge and the application of immunology, particularly in the biotechnology field;
4) to know how to conceive and support theoretical and practical arguments in order to solve specific problems of immunology and related disciplines.

The front lessons will address the following topics:
General characteristics of the immune system. Physical / chemical barriers outside. Internal innate defenses. Molecules and cells of innate immunity. The complement system. Acute inflammatory reaction, proinflammatory cytokines and acute phase proteins (6h).
Antigen recognition by T lymphocytes and lymphocytes B. Formation of antigen receptors on lymphocytes. Presentation of the antigen to T lymphocytes. The Major Istocompatibility Complex and its functions (6h).
Signal transmission through immune system receptors. Lymphocyte activation mechanisms (4h).
Development and survival of lymphocytes. Positive and negative selection in thymus. The response of T cells (6h).
The humoral immune response. Various types and functions of antibodies. Dynamics of acquired immunity (6h).
The immune response during an infection. Immune memory. The mucosal immune system (6h).
Deficiencies of host defense mechanisms. Evasion and subversion of immune defenses. Immune deficiency diseases (4h).
Allergies and allergic diseases. Autoimmunity and transplantation. The genetic and environmental bases of self-immunity. Responses to alloantigens and transplant rejection (4h).
Modulation of unwanted immune responses. The use of the immune response against tumors. Combating infectious diseases with vaccinations (6h).

Janeway Immunobiology (PICCIN, 8th Edition, 2014).
Slide lessons: downloadable from the University's E-learning site.


The course consists of 48 hours of frontal lessons (6 CFUs). These lessons will be supported by power point slides projection.

The lecturer is available for further information or clarification on topics discussed for individual students or groups of students. He will receive students, after making an appointment by e-mail (, at the Immunology and General Pathology Laboratory (1st floor), former Colonia Agricola, via Monte Generoso 71 (int. 4) Varese.