Degree course: 
Corso di First cycle degree in BIOTECHNOLOGY
Academic year when starting the degree: 
Academic year in which the course will be held: 
Course type: 
Compulsory subjects, characteristic of the class
First Semester
Standard lectures hours: 
Detail of lecture’s hours: 
Lesson (64 hours), Exercise (16 hours)

The course begins with elementary notions and does not require previous knowledge of biology

Final Examination: 

The final assessment is organized in two parts:
practical exam is based on the observation, by optical microscopy, and the identification of tissues present in histological specimens. This part of the exam will be expressed as ' approved ' or ' not approved '. Once passed, practical test remain valid for 12 months.
The oral interview is aimed to evaluate the knowledge acquired during the course and the ability to expose the topics using appropriate definitions.

Voto Finale


The course aims to provide the basis for understanding the morphological and functional characteristics of biological tissue structures starting from the molecular, supramolecular and subcellular present in an animal cell. The exercises will deepen the aspects covered in the lessons.

Acquisition of theoretical and practical skills of morphological and functional aspects of a single cells and biological tissues.
Skills acquisition application re: methodological procedures and instrumental addressed, especially in the preparation and observation of histological samples.

A)Module of Citology (4 CFU 32 hours)
The animal cell with particular interest to:
Cell size, unit of measure and knowledge of microscopy (optical and electronic), preparation of biological specimens.
Chemical components of cells, sources and use of energy: fundamentals laws of thermodynamics,
biological macromolecules (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids): structure, physico-chemical characteristics and functions.
Organization, characteristics and function of cellular membrane.
Organization, features and function of cytoskeleton protein (intermediate filaments, microtubules and microfilaments).
Cellular compartments and their functions: nucleus, smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, peroxisomes, mitochondria.
The cytoplasm, chemical-physical characteristics and functions,
Protein sorting and transport to cell compartments.
Exocytosis, endocytosis and transcytosis processes.
Somatic cell division: mitosis,
Germ cell division: meiosis and genetic variability.
B) Module of Histology (4 CFU 32 hours)
How the cells are organized in biological tissues
Epithelial tissues (simple and multi-layered), features, functions, distribution, cellular surface specializations (microvilli, cilia, stereo cilia and flagella) and the basolateral specializations (cell-cell junctions and cell-matrix junctions).
Glandular epithelial tissues: morphological and functional classification, tissue distribution. Types of secreting cells and process of secretion.
Connective tissues: characteristics, development, functions and localization of proper (dense, loose) and specialized (cartilage, bone and hematopoietic bone marrow) connective tissue, with regards to cell population and extracellular matrix components.
Characteristics, development, function, and localization of skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscle tissue with particular attention to the muscle contraction process.
Characteristics, development, function, and localization of nervous tissue and neuroglia cells.
Characteristics, development, function, and localization of lymphoid organs (spleen and lymph nodes) with outline to the main immune response mechanisms.
C)Module of Laboratory (1 CFU 16 hours)
The lessons consist in the observation, by light microscopy, of tissues specimens. In particular:
- Epithelial tissues
- Glandular epithelia
- Connective tissues
- Cartilage
- Compact and spongy bone
- Adipose tissue
- Blood and lymphoid tissues
- Skeletal muscle tissue
- Cardiac muscle tissue
- Smooth muscle tissue
- Nervous tissue

The recommended books are:
“Biologia Cellula e Tessuti” AUTORI VARI, 2° edizione a cura di R. COLOMBO e E. OLMO Editore: EdiErmes Anno edizione: 2014.

“Bloom & Fawcett trattato di Istologia” D.W. Fawcett, McGraw-Hill XII ed.

The slides are available

For the laboratory module
“Istologia ed elementi di anatomia microscopica” AUTORI VARI Editore: EdiSES.
“Anatomia microscopica funzionale dei visceri umani” Manrico Morroni, Editore: EdiErmes

Please no books from High School


The course includes lectures (8 CFU 64 hours) and practice exercises (1 CFU 16 hours).
Lectures treat topics with the help of slides.
The laboratory module will be held at the microscopy laboratory located at Padiglione Morselli. During laboratory module is assured continuous assistance by the teacher, or assistant, and at least one teaching assistant. The students are reminded that attendance of the practical lessons is mandatory and which is permitted absence only for no more than 2 lessons.