Degree course: 
Corso di First cycle degree in BIOTECHNOLOGY
Academic year when starting the degree: 
Academic year in which the course will be held: 
Course type: 
Basic compulsory subjects
Second semester
Standard lectures hours: 
Detail of lecture’s hours: 
Lesson (40 hours), Exercise (12 hours)

Basic math skills are required (basic notions of algebra and trigonometry, function concept, straight line properties, parabola and polynomials, exponential functions and logarithms, trigonometric functions, notions about vector algebra and manipulation of Cartesian coordinates and Polar) and basic descriptive statistics, which are only briefly summarized at the beginning of the course. No prior knowledge of Physics is required, though useful.

Final Examination: 

The exam consists of a final written test in thirty-five. The exam ensures the acquisition of basic theoretical knowledge provided during the course and the ability to apply them in solving problems. The written exam consists of 8-10 questions, of which two are open, including questions about theory and simple exercises that cover the entire arena of the program.

Voto Finale

Knowledge and understanding skills.
The student should acquire basic knowledge in the main fields of Classical Physics; Acquire the ability to analyze phenomena of biotechnology interest by identifying the physical parameters that control them, to understand the constraints on the evolution of such phenomena dictated by the laws of Classical Physics.
Ability to apply knowledge and understanding.
The student should acquire autonomy of judgment in choosing the quantities useful for the quantitative description of biological and medical phenomena, and in choosing the hypotheses about their relationship, and then developing the ability to build a simple physical model of the problems in question. It should also acquire adequate skills and tools to communicate and justify such choices.

The course provides a basic introduction to the main concepts of Classical Physics. It is articulated in sections:
Basic Mathematics Requests: Elementary functions (trigonometric, logarithmic, exponential, polynomial) with applications in Physics and Biology. Vettori. Scientific notation. Errors, precision, accuracy.
Measurable measurements and measurements. Dimensional analysis.
Mechanics (of the material point). Cinematics: trajectory, hourly, speed, acceleration (average and instantaneous). Straight straight motion, uniformly accelerated (in 1 and 2D), circular, periodic (single-dimensional). Forces, amount of motorcycles, Newton's laws. Inertial reference systems. Gravitational force, electrostatic, elastic, friction. Fluid strength and limit speed. Sedimentation and centrifugation.
Work, energy, kinetic energy theorem. Power, efficiency, conservative and dissipative forces. Potential energy. Mechanical energy, energy conservation. Relationship between forces and energy potential, potential energy curves, equilibrium positions. Preservation of the amount of motion. Moment of strength and balance of the rigid body (hints).
Fluid. Pressure, density. Stevin's Law. Pascal's Principle, Archimedes push. Speed range, laminar and turbulent motions. Ideal and viscous fluids. Flow, continuity equation. Bernoulli Law. Poiseuille Law. Hydrodynamic resistance. Circulatory system applications. Sphygmomanometer.
Thermodynamics. Macrostats and thermodynamic variables. Temperature, zero principle, thermometers. Heat, thermal capacity, specific heat. Heat exchanges. Latent heat. Phase transitions. Thermal expansion. Conduction and irradiation. Ideal gas, gas laws, and state equation. Explanations of kinetic theory of gases and the physical meaning of temperature. Internal energy. Work. First principle. Status functions. Enthalpy. Transformations into an ideal gas. Second principle. Thermal machines, Carnot theorem. Entropy. Irreversibility. Disorder and information. Thoughts on potential thermodynamics. Osmosis and osmotic pressure.
Electricity. Electric charge, Coulomb's law. Electric field. Electric potential potential and electrical potential. Field and potential for a point charge, of a dipole, of a single and double layer loaded; Biological membrane details. Motion of a charge and a dipole in a uniform field. Conductors and insulators. Polarization. Capacitors. Ohm's law, resistance. Circuits, capacitors and resistors in series and in parallel, Kirchhoff's laws. RC circuits and low-pass filters. Observations on biological membranes as electrical circuits. Notes on electromagnetic induction, electromagnetic field and Maxwell equations. Waves and optics. Periodic waves, sinusoidal waves. Fourier analysis. Sound waves, electromagnetic waves. Spectrum, electromagnetic spectrum, light. Reflection and refraction. Images, lenses, microscopes. Dispersion. Interference, diffraction. Diffraction limit of an optical instrument

The slides used by the lecturer are partially made available to online students on the e-learning website of the University. The exercises carried out by the teacher are equally available online in the form of reasoned exposure. Students are required to use one or more monographic texts on course topics.


The course includes frontal classroom lessons (40 hours), intercalated by exercises (12 hours) in which exercises are applied that apply the knowledge of the lesson learned theory. The exercises are performed on the chalkboard by the trainer, following a discussion of appropriate strategies to solve them. Students must have a scientific calculator available to follow the exercises.

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