Degree course: 
Corso di First cycle degree in BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES
Academic year when starting the degree: 
Academic year in which the course will be held: 
Course type: 
Supplementary compulsory subjects
Second semester
Standard lectures hours: 
Detail of lecture’s hours: 
Lesson (44 hours), Laboratory (8 hours)

In order to attend fruitfully the class of immunology, the student should be in possession of the basic notions in cytology, histology, genetics and molecular biology.

The final exam consists of an oral test

Voto Finale

The principal aim of the course of Basics and Techniques of Immunology is to provide the student with fundamental notions in order to be able to further improve fruitfully the knowledge in this field of study. Moreover, nearly a fifth of the course is aimed at explaining the principal experimental approaches in use in immunology. Indeed the learning of experimental methods is further supported by laboratory training included in the 6 CFU. At the end of the course the student will be able to understand basic principles on innate immunity, inflammation and the role of the main lymphocyte subsets in immune responses. This knowledge is pivotal to gain access to modern immunopathology

-leukocytes, immunephenotype, CD classification
-apoptosis necrosis
-innate and acquired responses, immunological memory
-clonal selection theory

Immunoglobulins, structure and functions
-experimental approaches for the molecular study of Igs
- Ig isotope, effector properties
-Ig coding genes, an outline

Immunological techniques
-hapten and e carrier
-adjuvant in immunization
-hybridome selection in HAT medium after Milstein and production of MoAbs

MHC, TCR and NK cells
-MHC-I and MHC-II, molecular structure, functions, polymorphism and tissue expression
-MHC polymorphism, biological meaning
-MHC polymorfism, clinical application and transplant
-antigen processing and presentation
-TCR coding genes, an outline. Comparation with Ig genes
-NK cells, missing self, inhibitory and activatory receptors

Cytokine Network
-citokines, general issues
-main cytokines involved in the acquired response: IL2, IL4, IL-10, IL12, IFNg
-TH1/TH2 polarization
-experimental approaches for the study of TH1/TH” signature cytokines: ELISA, and intra-cytoplasmatic fluorescence

Secondary lymphoid organs, lymph-nodes and spleen.
-chemokine biology, G-protein coupled receptors
-biology of dendritic cells (DC)
-priming of acquired immunity, role of costimulatory signals
-vaccine adjuvants and costimulus
- secondary lymphoid organs, lymph nodes and spleen. Blood and lymphatic circulation. Role of chemokine receptors in the homing of T and DC cells in lymph nodes, CCR7

Thymus (central tollerance) and peripheral tollerance
-thymus anatomy, involution in the adulthood
-peripheral tollerance, costimulation
- IL-2, the TCGF

Innate immunity/infiammation
-a general outline
-innate response, barriers. Anti-microbic peptides, iron chelators during infection etc.
-complement, three pathways
-innate receptors, pattern recognition PAMP and PRR.
-Mannose Binding Lectin MBL
-TLR and NOD, expression, ligands, signal transduction, NF-kB activation

laboratory exercitation (0.5 CFU)
The experiments to be performed deal with effector properties of complement. Specifically: a)lysis by complement of E coli opsonized by human serum, the result will be analyzed by spectophotometer and classical microbiological plating techniques b)lysis by complement of a cellular target opsonized by antibodies, the result will be analyzed by optical microscopy c) complement role in phagocytosis of fluorescent-labeled E coli by a human macrophage cell line, the result will be analyzed by fluorescent microscopy and flow cytometry

Tak Mak Fondamenti Immunologia Zanichelli
Kuby Immunologia UTET

the lesson slides are on the E-learning platform


classroom taught 44 hours, 5.5 CFU. 1 lab lesson, 8 hours 0.5 CFU.

Students may communicate with the teacher through the university E-mail address. The gathering place is the teacher’s study office in Busto Arsizio.