Degree course: 
Corso di First cycle degree in BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES
Academic year when starting the degree: 
Academic year in which the course will be held: 
Course type: 
Supplementary compulsory subjects
First Semester
Standard lectures hours: 
Detail of lecture’s hours: 
Lesson (60 hours)

- good knowledge of the main aspects of Cell Biology and Biochemistry, of Genetics and of Molecular Biology
- adequate knowledge of General Physiology and System Physiology

oral exam:
- the student can prepare a brief report on a pathology of their choice, which must consider the genetic, biochemical, molecular, physiological, pathogenetic and possibly pharmacological aspects, rather than the clinical ones
- at least another question will be asked, on a general theme of pathophysiology, discussed during the course

Voto Finale

- understanding the basic mechanisms that maintain cellular and systemic homeostasis, of the adaptation mechanisms that make it possible to recover from reversible damage, and of the processes that lead to irreversible damage
- understanding and distinguishing etiological factors vs pathogenetic mechanisms and, as a consequence, possible approaches of preventive vs. symptomatic vs. disease modifying treatment in pathologies
- understanding the normal function of the cardiocirculatory system and the mechanical and hydrodynamic problems that may impair its function
- understanding the role of the kidney in maintaing the homeostasis of liquids and solutes in the body and blood pressure, and recognizing the possible mechanisms and processes that may interfere with such control and impair it
- understanding the roles and the interactions of the principal hormones and the related possible dysfunctions
- understanding the specific aspects of neuronal suffering and of the pathogenesis of the main developmental, convulsive and degenerative neuropathologies
- understanding how the main non invasive electrophysiological recording procedures (electromyography, electrooculography, ECG, EEG) work
- ability of executing simple non invasive electrophysiologicl measurements
- ability to identify and quantify the main parameters that can be derived by such measurements
- ability to read and interpret the most relevant aspects in the resulting tracings

1. Cellular Physiopathology
o from homeostasis to reversible and irreversible damage
o the mechanisms of cellular suffering: lack of ATP, mitochondrion suffering, ROS, calcium-ions, UPR, proteasome, aggregate accumulation and deposition
o the specific susceptibility of specific cellular and neuronal types to processes of cellular damage
o “non cell-autonomous” factors in cell suffering
o the neuroprotective and neurotoxic role of glia
2. cardiocirculatory system
o heart mechanical activity and its regulation
o congestive heart insufficiency, compensation and cardiac failure
o shock, physiopathology, irreversibility, treatment
o peripheral circulation: gas transfers, exchanges, ischemia
o coronary circulation, cardiac perfusion, angina, infarction
o cardiac output, blood pressure, cardiac work and oxygen need
o heart electrical activity and its regulation
o alterations of the electrical activity, pathogenesis of arrhythmias
o physiological aspects and diagnostic applications of the electrocardiogram
3. the control of body fluid volume and composition
o the kidney as an elimination system
o the kidney as a homeostatic control system for the composition of bodily fluids
o the control of body fluid volume
o short- and long-term control of arterial pressure
o control of body fluid pH
4. endocrinology, hormone physiopathology
o endocrinology of development
o stress endocrinology
o sexual endocrinology
o hormones and integrated homeostatic controls (blood volume, glycemia, body temperature...)
5. pathophysiology of inflammatory processes
o necrosis, apoptosis, UPR (unfolded protein response), proteasome, autophagia / mitophagia
o humoral and cellular aspects of inflammation
6. neuronal pathophysiology
o pathophysiology of the peripheral nervous system
o pathophysiology of excitability (ion channels, synaptic function, myelin)
o neuronal physiopathology: the processes of neuronal suffering
o neuronal physiopathology: the neuroprotective or neurotoxic role of glia

Any text of Medical Physiology, Human Physiology or even Animal or General Physiology.
- slides of the classes are available
- further information on the pathology can be easily found in internet

- classes
- practicals with a multipurpose non-invasive electrophysiological recording system