Degree course: 
Corso di First cycle degree in BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES
Academic year when starting the degree: 
Academic year in which the course will be held: 
Course type: 
Compulsory subjects, characteristic of the class
First Semester
Standard lectures hours: 
Detail of lecture’s hours: 
Lesson (60 hours)

Biochemistry and Physiology

A written test (essay-based) will be administered at the end of the course. It will be based on 3 questions randomly chosen between all the topics presented during the course. Students must score at least 18/30 in order to pass the test

Voto Finale

Students will understand fundamental principles of pharmacology as related to the mechanisms of drug action, biodistribution and metabolism. Specifically, on successful completion of the course, students will be able to:
- describe the general principles of pharmacology, indicating the targets for drug action, and the processes by which the body can affect the fate of such agents
- discuss the factors leading to individual variability in drug response altering therapy outcomes and adverse drug events
- describe how pre-clinical and clinical evaluation of new drugs is conducted
Moreover, students will be able to apply the acquired knowledge to perform basic pre-clinical pharmacological studies and to present concise, analytical, and objective scientific information relating to pharmacology in the form of essays, reports, scientific literature reviews, posters and/or oral presentations

Lectures (5CFU 40 hours)
Essential lexicon of Pharmacology and a short history of Pharmacology. Research and Development of New Drugs
Pharmacokinetics. Drug Absorption and Administration Routes. Drug Distribution. Drug Metabolism and Elimination
Proteins as drug targets. Drugs and Enzymes. Drugs and Transporters. Drugs and Ion Channels.
Drug–Receptor Interactions: Quantitative and Qualitative Aspects. Receptors and Modulation of Their Response. Dose/Response curves. Relationship between drug-receptor interaction and response.
Receptor analysis techniques (binding, receptor functionality)
Transmembrane receptors. Drugs and ion channel receptors. Drugs and G protein coupled receptors. Drugs and receptors for growth factors. Drugs and intracellular/intranuclear receptors
Mechanisms of receptor regulation
Exercise section in the computer lab(0.5 CFU 6 hours)
1 Description and analysis of ligand-receptor binding experiments with specific software
2 Description of a pre-clinical study set up to investigate antianxiety activity of new compounds
Laboratory (0.5 CFU 8 hours)
A two-days activity consisting of immunohistochemistry techniques to monitor the induction of immediately early genes in brain sections after pharmacological manipulation of specific glutamatergic receptors.

F. Clementi e G. Fumagalli “ Farmacologia generale e molecolare” IV edizione UTET.
Slide presentations used during lectures are available on the e-learning website

The format will be lectures and laboratory activity