TECNICHE DI CARATTERIZZAZIONE IN CHIMICA INORGANICA

Degree course: 
Corso di First cycle degree in Chemical Sciences and Technologies
Academic year when starting the degree: 
2014/2015
Year: 
3
Academic year in which the course will be held: 
2016/2017
Course type: 
Optional subjects
Credits: 
6
Period: 
First Semester
Standard lectures hours: 
60
Detail of lecture’s hours: 
Lesson (60 hours)
Requirements: 

A deep knowledge of the topics tackled during the courses of General Chemistry and Inorganic Chemistry, as well as of the fundamentals of Mathematics and Physics, is a beneficial prerequisite.

The final examination is a two-step procedure:
1. The students are expected to write a report describing what they carried out during the practical exercitations, in terms of data collection and treatment, the results obtained and their interpretation, also on the basis of the explanations provided by the professor during front lections and practical exercitations. The report is satisfactory if it is worth a mark amounting at least to 18/30.
2. An oral interview, during which the students will be examined on all the topics tackled during the lessons and on the critical aspects possibly present in the report at point 1. The students are admitted to the oral interview only after delivering the report. The oral interview is satisfactory if it is worth a mark amounting at least to 18/30.
The final mark is the average, weighted on the basis of the credits, of the two partial marks.

Assessment: 
Voto Finale

Aims and outcomes

Front lecturing aims at increasing students’ knowledge and comprehension in the field of characterization techniques for solid-state (mainly but not exclusively) inorganic materials.

The practical exercitations enable the students to apply the topics tackled during the front lessons, test their comprehension skills and get acquainted with instruments that are often present in the R&D or quality control sections of a chemical industry.

Treating and interpreting the data collected during the practical sections should help the students learning to judge in autonomy.

Writing a report at the end of the practical sections should aid the students rationalizing the results obtained and improving their communication skills.

Program

The main topics of the course can be subdivided into two distinct but strictly related parts:

A) First part, 16 hours of front lections:
• Diffraction
• Historical hints on the discovery of X-rays and the birth of X-ray diffraction.
• Lab instrumentation for powder X-ray diffraction: the diffractometer and its main components (X-ray source, slits, monochromator, sample-holder, detector).
• Large scale facilities: synchrotrons.
• Sample preparation for powder X-ray diffraction: grinding and/or disaggregation, sample-holder choice, sample-holder filling.
• Introduction to qualitative analysis (phase identification, also within a mixture, polymorphs discrimination) on solid-state samples by means of powder X-ray diffraction. Examples of application of qualitative analysis by powder X-ray diffraction at the industrial level (pharmaceutical, colour and pigment, cement industries, etc.), in mineralogy, in the forensic field, to study artworks and artefacts, at customs, etc.
• Databases.
• Introduction to variable-temperature powder X-ray diffraction to study the thermal behaviour of a solid-state sample in terms of thermal expansion, phase transition, solvent loss, decomposition, etc.
• Introduction to qualitative analysis (element identification) on solid-state samples by means of X-ray fluorescence.

B) Second part, 48 hours of practical exercitations to apply some of the topics tackled during the first part:
• Sample preparation and deposition for powder X-ray diffraction experiments.
• Powder X-ray diffraction data acquisition by means of a lab facility.
• Qualitative analysis of the data (collected on monophasic and polyphasic samples) through a dedicated database.
• Study of the thermal behaviour of a handful of materials (examples of thermal expansion, phase transition, solvent loss): data acquisition, data treatment through dedicated software, interpretation of the results.
• X-ray fluorescence data acquisition for qualitative analysis and pertinent interpretation.

Textbooks and references

The teaching activities does not rely on a reference textbook. Rather, they take advantage of material prepared ad hoc by the professor, including book chapters in Italian or English and the slides presented during the lessons.

Final examination
The final examination is a two-step procedure:
1. The students are expected to write a report describing what they carried out during the practical exercitations, in terms of data collection and treatment, the results obtained and their interpretation, also on the basis of the explanations provided by the professor during front lections and practical exercitations. The report is satisfactory if it is worth a mark amounting at least to 18/30.
2. An oral interview, during which the students will be examined on all the topics tackled during the lessons and on the critical aspects possibly present in the report at point 1. The students are admitted to the oral interview only after delivering the report. The oral interview is satisfactory if it is worth a mark amounting at least to 18/30.
The final mark is the average, weighted on the basis of the credits, of the two partial marks.

The teaching activities comprise 16 hours of front lections and 48 hours of practical exercitations.

Professors