Degree course: 
Corso di First cycle degree in Movement science
Academic year when starting the degree: 
Academic year in which the course will be held: 
First Semester
Standard lectures hours: 

No requirements are needed

Final Examination: 
Voto Finale

Objectives and expected results
Carbohydrate structure, amino acids, protein, lipid and biologic membrane. Oxygen transporters and their mechanisms, skeletal muscle metabolic cycles and their relationship with liver and other organs, muscle exhaustion, molecular structure of the muscle, diet of the athletes, hormones, doping.

Content and course program
Chemistry Module

Gas laws, structure of atoms, atomic number and mass number. Isotopes and radioactivity, atomic orbitals. Energy of atomic orbitals, electronic structure. Periodic System. periodic table of elements. Atomic radius. ionization energy, electron affinity, and electronegativity.
Chemical bonds: ionic, covalent homopolar, polar covalent. Bond to hydrogen bridge. Van der Walls forces.
Value, the octet rule. Problems of the octet rule. Valence bond theory. valence bonds (sigma, pi-greek). Hybridisation, orbital hybrids. Hybridization water.
thermodynamics outline (concept of enthalpy and entropy), free energy. Elements of chemical kinetics. concept of speed of reaction and factors affecting it. Catalysts.
Properties of solutions and pure solvent, osmosis and osmolarity. Concentration, definition of mole. Equilibria in aqueous solutions and weak acids and strong bases, pKa and pKb. pH, buffer solutions, equation of Henderson-Hasselbalch.
Redox reactions, galvanic cells, potential, Nerst and Hess laws.
in organic chemistry, nomenclature and characteristics of the main organic groups.
Sugars: aldose, ketose, D and L isomers, and cyclic structures. Alpha and beta anomers. Glycoside bond, disaccharides and polysaccharides.
Amino acids: classification based on the R group, zwitterionic structure, peptide bond, protein structure.
Fat: saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, glycerol and triglycerides. Lipid structure of phospholipids and glycolipids. biological membranes. Cholesterol.
Carbohydrates: nomenclature and classification of aldoses and ketoses. Complexes sugars (hexosamine, sialic acid) disaccharides (saccarose, maltose, lactose, cellobiose), structural homopolysaccarides : cellulose, reserve omopolysaccahrides: starch and glycogen. Heteropolysaccarides: glycosaminoglycans.
Proteins: Chemical classification of amino acids; reactivity of the amine and acidic groups, D-L series and their biological significance, Peptide linkage and its chemical-physical properties, Protein structures.
Lipid: simple lipids: fatty acids, the role of the double linkage, isomers. Complex lipids: triglycerides, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids. Biological membranes, cholesterol and its derivates, glycoproteins.
Oxygen transporters: Mioglobin and haemoglobin. Enzymes: properties and kinetics. Enzymatic inhibition, regulatory enzymes, allosteric enzymes and covalently regulated enzymes.
Metabolism: Bio energy, ATP-ADP, Catabolism and anabolism relationship, phosphorilation and ATP availability, Glucose activation, glycogen metabolism, and its control mechanisms.
The glycolysis and its control mechanisms, pyruvate oxidative decarboxylation, gluconeogenesis and its control mechanisms, Fatty acids oxidation, Krebs, energy balance and its control mechanism. Anaplerotic reaction. Amino acid metabolism: transamination and transdesamination. Damage of Ammonia mechanism and protection against ammonia, glutamine and urea cycle, ketonic bodies, metabolism during starvation.
Haeme and bilirubin catabolism.

Type of educational activities
Frontal lessons


Fiecchi - Chimica e propedeutica biochimica - Edi-ermes
Santaniello – Pprincipi di chimica generale ed organica - Piccin
Fioreilli et al. Biochimica per le scienze motorie ed Ambrosiana
Assessment methods
Written multiple-choice tests.